Vitamin D3-induced proliferative lesions in the rat adrenal medulla.
(33/865)Adrenal medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytomas are induced in rats by a variety of non-genotoxic agents, and we have hypothesized that these agents induce lesions indirectly by stimulating chromaffin cell proliferation. Vitamin D3, which has not been previously associated with adrenal medullary proliferative lesions, is the most potent in vivo stimulus to chromaffin cell proliferation yet identified. The present investigation utilized the vitamin D3 model to prospectively test the relationship between mitogenicity and focal proliferative lesions in the adrenal medulla and to determine early events in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Charles River Crl:CD BR rats were treated with 0; 5000; 10,000; or 20,000 IU/kg/day of vitamin D3 in corn oil (5 ml/kg) by oral intubation. Rats were killed after 4, 8, 12, or 26 weeks of treatment, following a final week of labeling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) using a mini-pump. Adrenal sections were double-stained for BrdU and phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase (PNMT) to discriminate epinephrine (E) from norepinephrine (NE) cells or for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAchT) to identify cholinergic nerve endings. Vitamin D3 caused a 4-5-fold increase in BrdU labeling at week 4, diminishing to a 2-fold increase by week 26. An initial preponderance of labeled E cells gave way to a preponderance of labeled NE cells. By week 26, 17/19 (89%) animals receiving the 2 highest doses of vitamin D3 had focal adrenal medullary proliferative lesions, in contrast to an absence of lesions in control rats. The lesions encompassed a spectrum including BrdU-labeled "hot spots" not readily visible on H and E sections, hyperplastic nodules, and pheochromocytomas. Lesions were usually multicentric, bilateral, and peripheral in location, and almost all were PNMT-negative. The lesions were not cholinergically innervated, suggesting autonomous proliferation. Hot spots, hyperplastic nodules, and pheochromocytomas appear to represent a continuum rather than separate entities. Their development might involve selective responses of chromaffin cell subsets to mitogenic signals, influenced by both innervation and corticomedullary interactions. A number of non-genotoxic compounds that induce pheochromocytomas in rats are known to affect calcium homeostasis. The results of this study provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that altered calcium homeostasis is indirectly involved in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytomas, via effects on chromaffin cell proliferation. (+info)
p53 induction as a genotoxic test for twenty-five chemicals undergoing in vivo carcinogenicity testing.
(34/865)In vivo carcinogenicity testing is an expensive and time-consuming process, and as a result, only a relatively small fraction of new and existing chemicals has been tested in this manner. Therefore, the development and validation of alternative approaches is desirable. We previously developed a mammalian in vitro assay for genotoxicity based on the ability of cells to increase their level of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 in response to DNA damage. Cultured cells are treated with various amounts of the test substances, and at defined times following treatment, they are harvested and lysed. The lysates are analyzed for p53 by Western blot and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. An increase in cellular p53 following treatment is interpreted as evidence for DNA damage. To determine the ability of this p53-induction assay to predict carcinogenicity in rodents and to compare such results with those obtained using alternate approaches, we subjected 25 chemicals from the predictive toxicology evaluation 2 list to analysis with this method. Five substances (citral, cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, D&C Yellow No. 11, oxymetholone, and t-butylhydroquinone) tested positive in this assay, and three substances (emodin, phenolphthalein, and sodium xylenesulfonate) tested as possibly positive. Comparisons between the results obtained with this assay and those obtained with the in vivo protocol, the Salmonella assay, and the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell assay indicate that the p53-induction assay is an excellent predictor of the limited number of genotoxic carcinogens in this set, and that its accuracy is roughly equivalent to or better than the Salmonella and SHE assays for the complete set of chemicals. (+info)
Potent carcinogenicity of 2,7-dinitrofluorene, an environmental pollutant, for the mammary gland of female Sprague-Dawley rats.
(35/865)Nitrofluorene compounds are environmental pollutants chiefly from incomplete combustion. This study examined carcinogenicities after one intramammary injection of 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 2, 7-dinitrofluorene (2,7-diNF) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (solvent control) to 30-day-old and of 2-NF, 9-OH-2-NF, 9-oxo-2-NF, 2,7-diNF, 9-oxo-2,7-diNF, 2,5-dinitrofluorene, 9-oxo-2,4,7-trinitrofluorene, N-OH-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-2-AAF) (carcinogen control) or DMSO to 50-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. In 30- and 50-day-old rats 6 and 8 glands/rat, respectively, were injected with 2.04 micromol of compound in 50 microliter/gland of DMSO. Whereas all compounds including DMSO yielded combined malignant and benign mammary tumor incidences of 33-87% by week 82 after injection, 2,7-diNF produced 100 and 93% incidences significantly (P < 0.001) sooner than did DMSO, i.e. by weeks 23-49 and 18-48 after treatment of 30- and 50-day-old rats, respectively. Rats treated with 2,7-diNF and 9-oxo-2,7-diNF had significantly (P < 0.0001) and marginally (P = 0. 0536) more mammary tumors, respectively, than DMSO-treated rats. In 2,7-diNF-treated rats, the ratio of malignant to benign mammary tumors was 5.4, whereas in all other groups it was <0.5. N-OH-2-AAF, a potent tumorigen when applied to the mammary gland as a solid or in suspension, did not yield the expected tumorigenicity here. The contrasting tumorigenic potencies of 2,7-diNF and N-OH-2-AAF may have been prompted by differences in their solubilities in DMSO. Thus, the poorly soluble 2,7-diNF was slowly absorbed from the injection sites since residues (up to 0.9% of the dose injected) were recovered even after 45 weeks. The data indicate prolonged exposure of the mammary gland to 2,7-diNF and suggest that contamination of the environment with 2,7-diNF, even at low levels, poses substantial carcinogenic risk. (+info)
Oxymetholone: II. Evaluation in the Tg-AC transgenic mouse model for detection of carcinogens.
(36/865)Several rodent models are under examination as possible alternatives to the classical 2-yr carcinogenicity bioassay. The Tg.AC transgenic mouse has been proposed as a shorter term model offering the possibility of detecting nongenotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenic agents. Retrospective studies of chemicals with established carcinogenic potential have revealed a close correlation between classical bioassay results and the production of skin tumors in the Tg.AC mouse model. Oxymetholone is a synthetic testosterone derivative that is a suspected carcinogen but has shown no evidence of genotoxic activity in a comprehensive battery of genetic toxicity assays. It currently is being tested by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in a 2-yr rat carcinogenicity bioassay. Because of its nongenotoxicity and the ongoing chronic bioassay, oxymetholone was considered an ideal candidate for a prospective evaluation of the predictive validity of the Tg.AC dermal carcinogenicity model. Consequently, a 6-mo dermal study with oxymetholone in the Tg.AC mouse model was initiated and completed prior to disclosure of the NTP rat bioassay results. In this study, male and female hemizygous Tg.AC mice, 7-8 wk old, were housed individually in suspended plastic cages. An area of dorsal skin was shaved to accommodate dermal applications of 200-microl doses of vehicle control (acetone), drug (1.2, 6.0, or 12 mg oxymetholone in dimethylsulfoxide:acetone, 20:80), or positive control (1.25 microg 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate [TPA]) solutions. Mice received oxymetholone or acetone daily or TPA twice weekly for 20 wk followed by a 6-wk recovery period. The acetone control groups exhibited low spontaneous incidences of papillomas, whereas dermal application of oxymetholone produced dose-related increases in the numbers of papilloma-bearing mice and the numbers of papillomas per animal. Females showed a somewhat greater response to the androgen than did the males. TPA caused an unequivocal increase in papillomas, with males exhibiting a greater response than females. The results of this study indicate that this nongerotoxic androgenic compound possesses proliferative properties. The results predict that chronic systemic administration of oxymetholone will most likely be associated with increased incidences of neoplasms. (+info)
Oxymetholone: III. Evaluation in the p53+/- transgenic mouse model.
(37/865)Oxymetholone has been identified as a suspected nongenotoxic carcinogen and has recently completed testing in a conventional National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-yr rodent bioassay program. As a synthetic androgen with a limited historical database in toxicology, oxymetholone is an ideal candidate for prospective examination of the performance of short-term transgenic mouse models in the detection of carcinogenic activity. In the present series of 3 articles, studies are described where oxymetholone was evaluated prior to disclosure of the results of the NTP 2-yr bioassay. The accompanying articles provide evidence showing that oxymetholone is devoid of mutagenic activity yet elicits a positive carcinogenic response in the Tg.AC transgenic mouse model. In the present study, oxymetholone was administered by oral gavage to p53 heterozygous male and female mice for 26 wk at doses of 125, 625, and 1,250 mg/kg/day. The vehicle was 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose. Positive controls consisted of mice treated daily by oral gavage with 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of p-cresidine in corn oil. The oxymetholone-treated females showed significantly increased body weight gain and clitoral enlargement attributable to drug treatment. In addition, significant alterations in kidney, liver, and testis weights were attributable to oxymetholone. However, there were no neoplastic lesions that were attributable to oxymetholone in either sex. p-Cresidine produced unequivocal bladder neoplasms in both sexes at the high dose and in males at the lower dose. The absence of a neoplastic response with oxymetholone is consistent with the selectivity of the p53-/- mouse model for detecting carcinogens that act by genotoxic mechanisms. (+info)
Liver tumor promoting effects of fenbendazole in rats.
(38/865)In order to examine whether fenbendazole has tumor-promoting activity, a total of 70 male Fischer 344 rats were initiated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or were given the saline vehicle alone; beginning 1 wk later, rats were given a diet containing 3,600; 1,800; 600; 200; 70; or 0 ppm of fenbendazole for 8 wk. Subgroups of 5 rats each from the DEN+ 1,800; DEN+0; 1,800; and 0 ppm groups were euthanatized after 1 wk of fenbendazole treatment, and the remaining animals were euthanatized at 8 wk. After 1 wk, relative liver weights (ratios to body weights) were significantly increased in the DEN+ 1,800 and 1,800 ppm groups, and based on light microscopy, periportal hepatocellular hypertrophy was evident in these groups. After 8 wk, relative liver weights were significantly increased in the groups given > or =600 ppm with or without DEN initiation. Periportal hepatocellular hypertrophy, characterized by a marked increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum, was observed in the groups given > or =600 ppm with or without DEN initiation. Induction of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A2, 2B1, or 4A1 was noted in the fenbendazole-treated groups with or without DEN initiation; that associated with CYP 1A2 was most marked. Positive immunostaining for anti-CYP 1A1/2 or CYP 2B1/2 was observed diffusely in the livers of animals in the DEN+1,800 and DEN+3,600 ppm groups. The numbers and areas of connexin 32 (Cx32)-positive spots per square centimeter in centrilobular hepatocytes were significantly decreased in an almost dose-dependent manner with fenbendazole treatment after DEN initiation. In situ hybridization for Cx32 mRNA revealed a remarkable decrease in its expression in the centrilobular hepatocytes in the DEN+70 ppm group. The numbers of glutathione S-transferase placental-form positive single cells (plus mini foci) were significantly increased in the DEN+ 1,800 and DEN+3,600 ppm groups. Since those agents that induce CYP 2B1/2 isozymes and reduce Cx32 in centrilobular hepatocytes have been suggested to be liver tumor promoters, the present results indicate that fenbendazole may be a liver tumor promoter. (+info)
Examination of low-incidence brain tumor responses in F344 rats following chemical exposures in National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity studies.
(39/865)Neoplasms in the brain are uncommon in control Fischer 344 (F344) rats; they occur at a rate of less than 1% in 2-yr toxicity/carcinogenicity studies. Furthermore, only 10 of nearly 500 studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) showed any evidence of chemically related neoplastic effects in the brain. Generally, the brain tumor responses were considered equivocal, because the characteristics of potential neurocarcinogenic agents (such as statistically significant increased incidences, decreased latency and/or survival, and demonstration of dose-response relationships) were not observed. A thorough examination, including comparisons with a well-established historical database, is often critical in evaluating rare brain tumors. Chemicals that gave equivocal evidence of brain tumor responses were generally associated with carcinogenicity at other sites, and many chemicals were mutagenic when incubated with metabolic activating enzymes. Other factors that were supportive of the theory that marginal increases in brain tumor incidence were related to chemical exposure were that (a) some of the tumors were malignant, (b) no brain neoplasms were observed in concurrent controls from some studies, and/or (c) brain tumors were also seen following exposure to structurally related chemicals. In 2-yr studies in F344 rats (studies conducted by the NTP), equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity was observed for the following 9 chemicals: isoprene, bromoethane, chloroethane, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine dihydrochloride, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride, furosemide, C.I. direct blue 15, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and 1-H-benzotriazole. Glycidol was the only chemical evaluated by the NTP with which there was clear evidence of brain tumor induction in F344 rats. Clarification of the potential neurocarcinogenic risks of chemicals that produce equivocal evidence of a brain tumor response in conventional 2-yr rodent studies may be aided by the use of transgenic mouse models that exhibit genetic alterations that reflect those present in human brain tumors as well as by the use of in utero exposures. (+info)
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-mediated ICAM-1 gene transfer abrogates tumorigenicity and induces anti-tumor immunity.
(40/865)BACKGROUND: Costimulatory and cellular adhesion molecules are thought to be essential components of antigen presentation in the immune response to cancer. The current studies examine gene transfer utilizing herpes viral amplicon vectors (HSV) to direct surface expression of adhesion molecules, and specifically evaluate the potential of a tumor-expressing intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to elicit an anti-tumor response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human ICAM-1 (hICAM1) gene was inserted into an HSV amplicon vector and tested in a transplantable rat hepatocellular carcinoma and in a human colorectal cancer cell line. Cell surface ICAM-1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Lymphocyte binding to HSV-hICAM1-transduced cells was compared with that to cells transduced with HSV not carrying the ICAM gene. Tumorigenicity of HSV-hICAM1-transduced tumor cells were tested in syngeneic Buffalo rats. Additionally, immunization with irradiated (10,000 rads) HSV-hICAM1-transduced tumor cells was performed to determine its effect on tumor growth. RESULTS: A 20-min exposure of tumor cells at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 resulted in high-level cell surface expression of human ICAM in approximately 25% of tumor cells. Transduced rat or human tumor cells exhibited significantly enhanced binding of lymphocytes (p < 0.05). HSV-hICAM1-transduced cells elicited an increase in infiltration by CD4(+) lymphocytes in vivo and exhibited decreased tumorigenicity. Immunization with irradiated HSV-hICAM1-transduced cells protected against growth of subsequent injected parental tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: HSV amplicon-mediated gene transfer is an efficient method for modifying the cell surface expression of adhesion molecules. Increased tumor expression of ICAM-1 represents a promising immune anti-cancer strategy. (+info)