Neonatal exposure to the food mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine via breast milk or directly induces intestinal tumors in multiple intestinal neoplasia mice.
(17/865)We examined whether the food mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) could increase intestinal tumorigenesis in neonatal C57BL/6J-Min/+ mice, a murine model for familial adenomatous polyposis. Min/+ mice are heterozygous for a nonsense mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene and spontaneously develop multiple intestinal adenomas, primarily in the small intestine. Neonatal Min/+ mice (3-6 days old) were exposed to PhIP via breast milk from lactating dams given 8 s.c. injections of 50 mg/kg PhIP three times a week or to 8 s.c. injections of 25 or 50 mg/kg PhIP directly, over the same period. At the age of 11 weeks, the number, diameter and location of the intestinal tumors were scored. Remarkably, a 2- to 4-fold increase in the number of small intestinal tumors was seen in Min/+ mice exposed to PhIP via breast milk (P < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first time PhIP has been reported to induce tumors following exposure via breast milk from PhIP-exposed dams. Upon direct exposure to 50 mg/kg PhIP, a 6- to 9-fold increase in the number of small intestinal tumors was observed (P < 0.001). The diameter of the PhIP-induced small intestinal tumors was slightly increased (P < 0.001). In the colon, a 3- to 4-fold increase in the number of tumors was seen in Min/+ mice exposed to PhIP via breast milk (P = 0. 004). Direct exposure to 50 mg/kg PhIP caused a 2- to 6-fold increase in the number of colonic tumors (P = 0.014). The PhIP-induced colonic tumors were located more distally and displayed a smaller diameter than the tumors from the controls (P < 0.05). In contrast to a previous study, where PhIP showed only a moderate tumorigenic effect in adult Min/+ mice, the present study demonstrates a strong tumorigenic effect of PhIP in neonatally exposed Min/+ mice, even after exposure via breast milk from PhIP-exposed dams. (+info)
New studies on trans-anethole oxide and trans-asarone oxide.
(18/865)The widespread use of naturally occurring alkenylbenzenes as flavoring and fragrance agents has led to a long-standing interest in their toxicity and carcinogenicity. Among them several allyl- and propenylbenzenes have been found to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. It has been shown that the carcinogenicity of several allylbenzenes can be related to the formation of electrophilic sulfuric acid esters following 1'-hydroxylation. Unlike the allylbenzenes, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of propenylbenzenes such as anethole and asarone are not clear. It has been reported that one of the main metabolic pathways of trans-anethole is the epoxidation of the side chain 1,2-double bond, which was responsible for cytotoxicity but not for genotoxicity. However, we report here that synthetic trans-anethole oxide prepared from trans-anethole and dimethyldioxirane is not only mutagenic for Salmonella tester strains but is also carcinogenic in the induction of hepatomas in B6C3F1 mice and skin papillomas in CD-1 mice. Synthetic trans-asarone oxide was also carcinogenic in the induction of hepatomas as well as mutagenic for Salmonella strains. Further studies are needed on these side chain oxides of trans-anethole and trans-asarone as possible metabolites in the toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of these and other propenylbenzenes. (+info)
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) retards mammary gland involution in lactating Sprague-Dawley rats.
(19/865)2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a compound from cooked meat, is an established mammary gland carcinogen in female rats. Four doses of PhIP (150 mg/kg, p.o., once per day) were given to lactating Sprague-Dawley rats separated from their 10-day-old pups to initiate involution of the gland. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, apoptotic index in the mammary gland, as measured by the TUNEL assay, was significantly higher in the gland from control rats than in the PhIP-treated rats (4.757 +/- 1.066 versus 1.905 +/- 0.248%; P < 0.05). In comparison with controls, alveoli in the mammary gland of PhIP-treated rats were also visibly larger and contained more secretory epithelial cells. The expression of Bax, a stimulator of apoptosis, and Bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis, were quantitated by western blotting. Accordingly, Bax expression was 2.7-fold higher in control rats, whereas Bcl-2 expression was 3.1-fold higher in PhIP-treated rats, both changes being statistically different (Student's t-test, P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry further confirmed a lower expression of Bax and higher expression of Bcl-2 in secretory alveolar epithelial cells of the PhIP-treated mammary gland. The findings are consistent with the notion that exposure to PhIP retarded involution via partial inhibition of programmed cell death. To investigate possible mechanisms for the inhibitory effects of PhIP on mammary gland involution, serum levels of prolactin, an important hormone for the maintenance of lactation, were measured in virgin rats with regular estrous cycles given PhIP (150 mg/kg, p.o.) on the morning of diestrous. After one estrous cycle, on proestrous morning, serum prolactin levels were 1.3-fold higher after PhIP than after control vehicle (one-way ANOVA, Fisher LSD multiple comparison test, P < 0. 05). PhIP exposure during involution was associated with the induction of benign mammary tumors. Seven out of 12 rats developed fibroadenomas, and one developed a tubulopapillary carcinoma within 1 year of receiving PhIP administration during involution (150 mg/kg, p.o., once per day for 5 days), and a high-fat diet (23.5% corn oil). An increase in serum prolactin level and the effects on mammary gland apoptosis seen with PhIP may have implications for the mechanisms of carcinogenic targeting of PhIP to the mammary gland. (+info)
The effect of connexin32 null mutation on hepatocarcinogenesis in different mouse strains.
(20/865)Connexin32 (Cx32) is the major gap junctional protein in mouse liver. We have shown recently that the formation of liver tumours in Cx32-deficient mice is strongly increased in comparison with control wild-type mice, demonstrating that the deficiency in gap junctional communication has an enhancing effect on hepatocarcinogenesis. We have now compared the effect of Cx32 deficiency on liver carcinogenesis in two strains of mice with differing susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenesis. Heterozygous Cx32(+/-) females were crossed with male Cx32 wild-type C57BL/6J (low susceptibility) or C3H/He (high susceptibility) mice. Since the Cx32 gene is located on the X-chromosome, the resulting F1 males segregated to the genotypes Cx32(Y/+) and Cx32(Y/-). Genotyping was performed by PCR-analysis using tail-tip DNA. Weanling male mice were i.p. injected with a single dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine and were killed 16, 21 or 26 weeks later. The number, volume fraction and size distribution of precancerous liver lesions characterized by a deficiency in the marker enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase were quantitated. The results demonstrate that Cx32 deficiency only slightly affects the number of enzyme-altered lesions, but strongly enhances their growth, both in the resistant and the susceptible mouse strain, suggesting that decreased intercellular communication results in tumour promoting activity irrespective of the genetic background of the mouse strain used. Since Cx32-deficient C3H/He hybrids were approximately 5-10 times more sensitive than C3H/He hybrids with an intact Cx32 gene, this mouse strain may prove very useful for toxicological screening purposes. (+info)
Development of a transgenic mouse model for carcinogenesis bioassays: evaluation of chemically induced skin tumors in Tg.AC mice.
(21/865)Transgenic rodent models have emerged as potentially useful tools in the assessment of drug and chemical safety. The transgenic Tg.AC mouse carries an inducible v-Ha-ras oncogene that imparts the characteristic of genetically initiated skin to these animals. The induction of epidermal papillomas in the area of topically applied chemical agents, for duration of not more than 26 weeks, acts as a reporter phenotype that defines the activity of the test article. We describe here the activity of six chemicals that have been previously characterized for activity in the standard 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Homozygous female Tg.AC mice were treated with benzene (BZ), benzethonium chloride (BZTC), o-benzyl-p-chlorophenol (BCP), 2-chloroethanol (2-CE), lauric acid diethanolamine (LADA) and triethanolamine (TEA). BZ and LADA induced skin papillomas in a dose-dependent manner, while BCP induced papillomas only at the highest dose. BZTC, 2-CE, and TEA exhibited no activity. The correspondence of chemical activity in Tg.AC mice with that in the 2-year bioassay was high. A comparison of responsiveness to BZ and LADA was made between hemizygous and homozygous female Tg.AC mice. Both genotypes appear to be equally sensitive to maximum doses of active compounds. The results reported here indicate that the Tg.AC transgenic mouse model can discriminate between carcinogens and noncarcinogens and that both mutagenic and nonmutagenic chemicals can be detected. These studies provide support for the adjunctive use of the Tg.AC transgenic mouse skin tumor model in drug and chemical safety assessment and for the prediction of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals. (+info)
Dose-response trend tests for tumorigenesis, adjusted for body weight.
(22/865)Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between rodent body weight and tumor incidence for some tissue/organ sites. It is not uncommon for a chemical tested for carcinogenicity to also affect body weight. In such cases, comparisons of tumor incidence may be biased by body-weight differences across dose groups. A simple procedure was investigated for reducing this bias. This procedure divides the animals into a few groups based on body weight. Body weight at 12 months was used, before the appearance of a tumor was likely to affect body weight. Statistics for dose-response trend tests are calculated within body weight strata and pooled to obtain an overall dose-response trend test. This procedure is analogous to that currently used, of stratifying animals, based on their age at the time of removal from a study. Age stratification is used to account for differences in animal age across dose groups, which can affect comparisons of tumor incidence. Several examples were investigated where the high-dose group had reduced body weights and associated reductions in tumor incidence. When the data were analyzed by body-weight strata, some positive dose-response trends for tumor incidence were demonstrated. In one case, the weight-adjusted analysis indicated that a negative dose-response trend in tumor incidence was a real effect, in addition to a body weight reduction. These examples indicate that it is important to consider the effects of body weight changes as low as 10%, and perhaps below, that were caused by chemicals in 2-year bioassays for carcinogenesis. The simple procedure of analyzing tumor incidence within body-weight strata can reduce the bias introduced by weight differences across dose groups. (+info)
Tumorigenicity and metabolism of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol enantiomers and metabolites in the A/J mouse.
(23/865)4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a major metabolite of the tobacco-specific pulmonary carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), has a chiral center but the tumorigenicity of the NNAL enantiomers has not been previously examined. In this study, we assessed the relative tumorigenic activities in the A/J mouse of NNK, racemic NNAL, (R)-NNAL, (S)-NNAL and several NNAL metabolites, including [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)but-(S)-1-yl] beta-O-D-gluco-siduronic acid [(S)-NNAL-Gluc], 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl N-oxide)-1-butanol, 5-(3-pyridyl)-2-hydroxytetrahydrofuran, 4-(3-pyridyl)butane-1,4-diol and 2-(3-pyridyl) tetrahydrofuran. We also quantified urinary metabolites of racemic NNAL and its enantiomers and investigated their metabolism with A/J mouse liver and lung microsomes. Groups of female A/J mice were given a single i.p. injection of 20 micromol of each compound and killed 16 weeks later. Based on lung tumor multiplicity, (R)-NNAL (25.6 +/- 7.5 lung tumors/mouse) was as tumorigenic as NNK (25.3 +/- 9.8) and significantly more tumorigenic than racemic NNAL (12.1 +/- 5.6) or (S)-NNAL (8.2 +/- 3.3) (P < 0. 0001). None of the NNAL metabolites was tumorigenic. The major urinary metabolites of racemic NNAL and the NNAL enantiomers were 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (hydroxy acid), NNAL-N-oxide and NNAL-Gluc, in addition to unchanged NNAL. Treatment with (R)-NNAL or (S)-NNAL gave predominantly (R)-hydroxy acid or (S)-hydroxy acid, respectively, as urinary metabolites. While treatment of mice with racemic or (S)-NNAL resulted in urinary excretion of (S)-NNAL-Gluc, treatment with (R)-NNAL gave both (R)-NNAL-Gluc and (S)-NNAL-Gluc in urine, apparently through the metabolic intermediacy of NNK. (S)-NNAL appeared to be a better substrate for glucuronidation than (R)-NNAL in the A/J mouse. Mouse liver and lung microsomes converted NNAL to products of alpha-hydroxylation, to NNAL-N-oxide, to adenosine dinucleotide phosphate adducts and to NNK. In lung microsomes, metabolic activation by alpha-hydroxylation of (R)-NNAL was significantly greater than that of (S)-NNAL. The results of this study provide a metabolic basis for the higher tumorigenicity of (R)-NNAL than (S)-NNAL in A/J mouse lung, namely preferential metabolic activation of (R)-NNAL in lung and preferential glucuronidation of (S)-NNAL. (+info)
Metallothionein modulates the carcinogenicity of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine in mice.
(24/865)We examined the carcinogenicity of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) in transgenic mice deficient in the metallothionein (MT) I and II genes and in control (129/Sv) mice. Both strains of mice were given BBN for 8 weeks with or without Zn treatment. All mice were killed at 12 weeks after the cessation of BBN administration. BBN induced bladder tumors in 75% of MT null mice and in 43% of 129/Sv mice. The average number of bladder tumors per mouse was significantly higher in MT null mice (1. 18 +/- 0.27) than in 129/Sv mice (0.43 +/- 0.20). Zn treatment suppressed the carcinogenicity of BBN in 129/Sv mice but not in MT null mice. Histopathological examination of the tumors revealed that the malignant potential of bladder tumors in 129/Sv mice was greater than that in MT null mice. These results indicate that MT is an important modulator of carcinogenicity of BBN in the bladder of mice. (+info)