Association of carboxyl esterase with facilitative glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) intracellular compartments in rat adipocytes and its possible role in insulin-induced GLUT4 recruitment.
(73/1703)Facilitative glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) in rat adipocytes is largely sequestered in intracellular sites, and insulin recruits GLUT4 from these sites to the cell surface. The process is known to involve multiple intracellular compartments and associated proteins, many of which are yet to be identified. Recently, we purified three distinct insulin-sensitive intracellular GLUT4 compartments (G4T(L), G4H, and G4L) in rat adipocytes and unraveled several new resident proteins in these compartments. Here, we describe one of them, a 62-kDa protein, purified and identified as rat adipose tissue carboxyl esterase (p62/CE) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, gene cloning, and immunological and enzymatic activity measurements. p62/CE in rat adipocytes was 80% cytosolic and 20% microsome-associated. It was found in all of the three insulin-sensitive intracellular GLUT4 compartments, and particularly enriched in G4T(L,) a compartment thought to represent GLUT4 endocytic vesicles. Significantly, an antibody against p62/CE introduced into rat adipocytes completely abolished the insulin-induced GLUT4 recruitment to the plasma membrane in host cells without affecting the basal GLUT4 distribution. Together, these findings suggest that p62/CE plays a key role in insulin-induced GLUT4 recruitment in rat adipocytes, probably by hydrolyzing acylglycerols or acyl-CoA esters to the respective free acids that are required for GLUT4 transport vesicle budding and/or fusion. (+info)
The gene pvaB encodes oxidized polyvinyl alcohol hydrolase of Pseudomonas sp. strain VM15C and forms an operon with the polyvinyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene pvaA.
(74/1703)A 5.7 kbp SphI fragment containing the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) dehydrogenase gene pvaA and its 1.9 kbp 5'-flanking region was cloned from the PVA-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. VM15C. The pvaB gene, encoding oxidized PVA hydrolase, was found in the region upstream of pvaA. Sequence data and expression studies indicated that pvaA and B constitute an operon in the order pvaBA. The pvaB gene encoded a protein of 379 amino acid residues (40610 Da), and a lipoprotein signal sequence and the lipase consensus sequence, Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly, characteristic of the active-site serine region in serine hydrolases, were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence. The pvaB product with the pvaA product constituted an enzyme system for the cleavage of PVA molecules. The pvaA product introduced beta-diketone groups into the PVA molecule, and the pvaB product hydrolysed these beta-diketone groups in oxidized PVA. The pvaB product also hydrolysed 4,6-nonanedione at a low rate, but not acetylacetone or 5-nonanone. It was completely inhibited by PMSF and was concluded to be a serine hydrolase. There were no proteins showing high similarity to the pvaB product in the databases, but minor similarity to a number of serine hydrolases including polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerases was apparent. (+info)
The fate of the initiator tRNAs is sensitive to the critical balance between interacting proteins.
(75/1703)Formylation of the initiator tRNA is essential for normal growth of Escherichia coli. The initiator tRNA containing the U35A36 mutation (CUA anticodon) initiates from UAG codon. However, an additional mutation at position 72 (72A --> G) renders the tRNA (G72/U35A36) inactive in initiation because it is defective in formylation. In this study, we isolated U1G72/U35A36 tRNA containing a wobble base pair at 1-72 positions as an intragenic suppressor of the G72 mutation. The U1G72/U35A36 tRNA is formylated and participates in initiation. More importantly, we show that the mismatch at 1-72 positions of the initiator tRNA, which was thus far thought to be the hallmark of the resistance of this tRNA against peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (PTH), is not sufficient. The amino acid attached to the initiator tRNA is also important in conferring protection against PTH. Further, we show that the relative levels of PTH and IF2 influence the path adopted by the initiator tRNAs in protein synthesis. These findings provide an important clue to understand the dual function of the single tRNA(Met) in initiation and elongation, in the mitochondria of various organisms. (+info)
Structure-function relationships in the carboxylic-ester-hydrolase superfamily. Disulfide bridge arrangement in porcine intestinal glycerol-ester hydrolase.
(76/1703)CNBr fragments from porcine intestinal glycerol-ester hydrolase were separated by SDS/PAGE under reducing and nonreducing conditions, and their amino-acid sequences were analysed. Two intra-chain disulfide bridges were identified, namely Cys70-Cys99 (loop A) and Cys256-Cys267 (loop B). As the Cys71 sulfhydryl group could not be alkylated with iodoacetamide, it is suggested that the residue is blocked rather than being present in the free form. The two disulfide bridges of intestinal glycerol-ester hydrolase are present in the cholinesterase family, although the enzyme showed only about 35% identity with these proteins. Furthermore, the finding that glycerol-ester hydrolase was partly inactivated under reducing conditions suggests that one or both disulfide bridges are important for the enzyme conformation. Lastly, glycerol-ester hydrolase was also found to hydrolyse cholinergic substrates, although residues Trp86 and Asp74 which are considered to be the main constituents of the 'anionic' subsite responsible for substrate binding in cholinesterases were absent from loop A. Other amino-acid residues in the glycerol-ester hydrolase may therefore be responsible for the binding of cholinergic substrates to the enzyme. (+info)
In vitro and in vivo assessment of the effect of impurities and chirality on methamidophos-induced neuropathy target esterase aging.
(77/1703)In vitro and in vivo studies evaluated neuropathy target esterase (NTE) inhibition and aging (i.e., loss of reactivation potential) by analytical and technical grade racemic and resolved L-(-) and D-(+) isomers of methamidophos (O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate). For studies in vitro, microsomal protein from phenobarbital-induced livers was isolated from chick embryos and NTE inhibition assays were performed using chick embryo brain homogenate treated with 1 or 5 mM methamidophos (with and without metabolic enzymes); for studies in vivo, hens received 30 to 35 mg/kg methamidophos injected into the pectoral muscle. NTE aging in hens was assessed 24 h later or after 30 min to 1 h incubation in vitro using solutions of potassium fluoride (KF) reactivator. Technical methamidophos produced significantly higher levels of aged-inhibited NTE than analytical methamidophos or isolated optical isomers. In vivo, technical methamidophos produced 61% total NTE inhibition with 18% aged and 43% unaged NTE; hens receiving analytical grade averaged 6% aged, 52% unaged, and 58% total NTE inhibition. Results for 1 mM analytical methamidophos in vitro were 5% aged, 54% unaged, and 59% total inhibition; for 1 mM technical methamidophos, values averaged 11% aged, 50% unaged, and 60% total NTE inhibition. The degree of NTE aging obtained both in vivo and in vitro for the isolated D-(+) and L-(-) isomers never exceeded that obtained using analytical grade. These data indicate that impurities in methamidophos could contribute to OPIDN potential. The in vitro methodology described could be applied to first tier screening for detection of NTE inhibition and aging, thus reducing the need for whole-animal testing for OPIDN. (+info)
Homology modeling and identification of serine 160 as nucleophile of the active site in a thermostable carboxylesterase from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus.
(78/1703)The hyperthermophilic Archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus has a gene (AF1763) which encodes a thermostable carboxylesterase belonging to the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-like group of the esterase/lipase family. Based on secondary structure predictions and a secondary structure-driven multiple sequence alignment with remote homologous proteins of known three-dimensional structure, we previously hypothesized for this enzyme the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold typical of several lipases and esterases and identified Ser160, Asp 255 and His285 as the putative members of the catalytic triad. In this paper we report the building of a 3D model for this enzyme based on the structure of the homologous brefeldin A esterase from Bacillus subtilis whose structure has been recently elucidated. The model reveals the topological organization of the fold corroborating our predictions. As regarding the active-site residues, Ser160, Asp255 and His285 are located close each other at hydrogen bond distances. The catalytic role of Ser160 as the nucleophilic member of the triad is demonstrated by the [(3)H]diisopropylphosphofluoridate (DFP) active-site labeling and sequencing of a radioactive peptide containing the signature sequence GDSAGG. (+info)
Poor predictive ability of urinalysis and microscopic examination to detect urinary tract infection.
(79/1703)Results of urinalysis, particularly the leukocyte esterase and nitrite tests, often are used to determine whether treatment is needed or a culture will be performed in cases of suspected urinary tract infection. However, there is disagreement over the quality of urinalysis as a screening test for urinary tract infections. Final urine culture results (n = 225) were obtained from the clinical microbiology laboratory. Stepwise binary logistic regression was used to derive a model using presence of infection as determined by culture as the dependent variable and urinalysis results as independent variables. A second set of data (n = 128) then was obtained to test the model. Statistical significance and the ability to predict infection based on urinalysis results were determined. Results indicated a lack of sensitivity for leukocyte esterase, nitrite, and presence of bacteria in the microscopic examination as indicators of urinary tract infection. (+info)
Transformation of Rickettsia prowazekii to erythromycin resistance encoded by the Escherichia coli ereB gene.
(80/1703)Rickettsia prowazekii, the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, is an obligate, intracytoplasmic, parasitic bacterium. Recently, the transformation of this bacterium via electroporation has been reported. However, in these studies identification of transformants was dependent upon either selection of an R. prowazekii rpoB chromosomal mutation imparting rifampin resistance or expression of the green fluorescent protein and flow cytometric analysis. In this paper we describe the expression in R. prowazekii of the Escherichia coli ereB gene. This gene codes for an erythromycin esterase that cleaves erythromycin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the expression of a nonrickettsial, antibiotic-selectable gene in R. prowazekii. The availability of a positive selection for rickettsial transformants is an important step in the characterization of genetic analysis systems in the rickettsiae. (+info)