A novel lipolytic enzyme located in the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
(41/1703)A lipase-negative deletion mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 still showed extracellular lipolytic activity toward short-chain p-nitrophenylesters. By screening a genomic DNA library of P. aeruginosa PAO1, an esterase gene, estA, was identified, cloned, and sequenced, revealing an open reading frame of 1,941 bp. The product of estA is a 69.5-kDa protein, which is probably processed by removal of an N-terminal signal peptide to yield a 67-kDa mature protein. A molecular mass of 66 kDa was determined for (35)S-labeled EstA by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The amino acid sequence of EstA indicated that the esterase is a member of a novel GDSL family of lipolytic enzymes. The estA gene showed high similarity to an open reading frame of unknown function located in the trpE-trpG region of P. putida and to a gene encoding an outer membrane esterase of Salmonella typhimurium. Amino acid sequence alignments led us to predict that this esterase is an autotransporter protein which possesses a carboxy-terminal beta-barrel domain, allowing the secretion of the amino-terminal passenger domain harboring the catalytic activity. Expression of estA in P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and subsequent cell fractionation revealed that the enzyme was associated with the cellular membranes. Trypsin treatment of whole cells released a significant amount of esterase, indicating that the enzyme was located in the outer membrane with the catalytic domain exposed to the surface. To our knowledge, this esterase is unique in that it exemplifies in P. aeruginosa (i) the first enzyme identified in the outer membrane and (ii) the first example of a type IV secretion mechanism. (+info)
A cinnamoyl esterase from Aspergillus niger can break plant cell wall cross-links without release of free diferulic acids.
(42/1703)A cinnamoyl esterase, ferulic acid esterase A, from Aspergillus niger releases ferulic acid and 5-5- and 8-O-4-dehydrodiferulic acids from plant cell walls. The breakage of one or both ester bonds from dehydrodimer cross-links between plant cell wall polymers is essential for optimal action of carbohydrases on these substrates, but it is not known if cinnamoyl esterases can break these cross-links by cleaving one of the ester linkages which would not release the free dimer. It is difficult to determine the mechanism of the reaction on complex substrates, and so we have examined the catalytic properties of ferulic acid esterase A from Aspergillus niger using a range of synthetic ethyl esterified dehydrodimers (5-5-, 8-5-benzofuran and 8-O-4-) and two 5-5-diferulate oligosaccharides. Our results show that the esterase is able to cleave the three major dehydrodiferulate cross-links present in plant cell walls. The enzyme is highly specific at hydrolysing the 5-5- and the 8-5-benzofuran diferulates but the 8-O-4-is a poorer substrate. The hydrolysis of dehydrodiferulates to free acids occurs in two discrete steps, one involving dissociation of a monoesterified intermediate which is negatively charged at the pH of the reaction. Although ferulic acid esterase A was able to release monoesters as products of reactions with all three forms of diesters, only the 5-5- and the 8-O-4-monoesters were substrates for the enzyme, forming the corresponding free diferulic acids. The esterase cannot hydrolyse the second ester bond from the 8-5-benzofuran monoester and therefore, ferulic acid esterase A does not form 8-5-benzofuran diferulic acid. Therefore, ferulic acid esterase A from Aspergillus niger contributes to total plant cell wall degradation by cleaving at least one ester bond from the diferulate cross-links that exist between wall polymers but does not always release the free acid product. (+info)
A novel function for a ubiquitous plant enzyme pectin methylesterase: the host-cell receptor for the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein.
(43/1703)Plant virus-encoded movement proteins promote viral spread between plant cells via plasmodesmata. The movement is assumed to require a plasmodesmata targeting signal to interact with still unidentified host factors presumably located on plasmodesmata and cell walls. The present work indicates that a ubiquitous cell wall-associated plant enzyme pectin methylesterase of Nicotiana tabacum L. specifically binds to the movement protein encoded by tobacco mosaic virus. We also show that pectin methylesterase is an RNA binding protein. These data suggest that pectin methylesterase is a host cell receptor involved in cell-to-cell movement of tobacco mosaic virus. (+info)
Gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos: dose response profiles for cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activity.
(44/1703)This study investigates the in vivo dose response profiles of the target enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) and the detoxifying enzymes carboxylesterase (CaE) in the fetal and maternal compartments of pregnant rats dosed with chlorpyrifos [(O,O'-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothionate], a commonly used organophosphorus insecticide. Pregnant rats were dosed daily (po) with chlorpyrifos in corn oil (0, 3, 5, 7, or 10 mg/kg) on gestational days (GD) 14-18. Animals were sacrificed 5 h after the last chlorpyrifos dose (time of maximum brain cholinesterase inhibition) for analysis of ChE and CaE activity in maternal blood, liver, brain, placenta, and fetal liver and brain. The in vitro sensitivity (i.e., IC50, 30 min, 26 degrees C) of CaE also was determined by assaying the activity remaining after incubation with a range of chlorpyrifos-oxon concentrations. In vivo exposure to 10 mg/kg chlorpyrifos from GD14-18 caused overt maternal toxicity, with dose-related decreases in ChE activity more notable in maternal brain than fetal brain. Dose-related effects were also seen with chlorpyrifos-induced inhibition of fetal liver ChE and maternal brain CaE activities. Gestational exposure caused no inhibition of placental ChE or CaE, fetal brain CaE, or maternal blood CaE. ChE activities in the maternal blood and liver, as well as fetal and maternal liver CaE, however, were maximally inhibited by even the lowest dosage of chlorpyrifos. The in vitro sensitivity profiles of CaE to chlorpyrifos-oxon inhibition were valuable in predicting and verifying the in vivo CaE response profiles. Both the in vivo and in vitro findings indicated that fetal liver CaE inhibition was an extremely sensitive indicator of fetal chlorpyrifos exposure. (+info)
Structure-activity of cutinase, a small lipolytic enzyme.
(45/1703)Cutinase, a small lipolytic enzyme, is the smallest member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold family, to which the other lipases belong. Cutinase has a catalytic activity comparable to that of pancreatic lipase on short chain triglycerides, and retains a significant activity on long chain triglycerides. Cutinase has been extensively studied using site-directed mutagenesis, and we have thoroughly characterized it from a structural point of view. Besides the native enzyme, tens of mutants and several inhibitor complexes have been solved, providing a complete and precise picture of the structure, dynamics and catalytic machinery of cutinase. (+info)
Regulation of the feruloyl esterase (faeA) gene from Aspergillus niger.
(46/1703)Feruloyl esterases can remove aromatic residues (e.g., ferulic acid) from plant cell wall polysaccharides (xylan, pectin) and are essential for complete degradation of these polysaccharides. Expression of the feruloyl esterase-encoding gene (faeA) from Aspergillus niger depends on D-xylose (expression is mediated by XlnR, the xylanolytic transcriptional activator) and on a second system that responds to aromatic compounds with a defined ring structure, such as ferulic acid and vanillic acid. Several compounds were tested, and all of the inducing compounds contained a benzene ring which had a methoxy group at C-3 and a hydroxy group at C-4 but was not substituted at C-5. Various aliphatic groups occurred at C-1. faeA expression in the presence of xylose or ferulic acid was repressed by glucose. faeA expression in the presence of ferulic acid and xylose was greater than faeA expression in the presence of either compound alone. The various inducing systems allow A. niger to produce feruloyl esterase not only during growth on xylan but also during growth on other ferulic acid-containing cell wall polysaccharides, such as pectin. (+info)
Neuropathy target esterase.
(47/1703)Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is an integral membrane protein present in all neurons and in some non-neural-cell types of vertebrates. Recent data indicate that NTE is involved in a cell-signalling pathway controlling interactions between neurons and accessory glial cells in the developing nervous system. NTE has serine esterase activity and efficiently catalyses the hydrolysis of phenyl valerate (PV) in vitro, but its physiological substrate is unknown. By sequence analysis NTE has been found to be related neither to the major serine esterase family, which includes acetylcholinesterase, nor to any other known serine hydrolases. NTE comprises at least two functional domains: an N-terminal putative regulatory domain and a C-terminal effector domain which contains the esterase activity and is, in part, conserved in proteins found in bacteria, yeast, nematodes and insects. NTE's effector domain contains three predicted transmembrane segments, and the active-site serine residue lies at the centre of one of these segments. The isolated recombinant domain shows PV hydrolase activity only when incorporated into phospholipid liposomes. NTE's esterase activity appears to be largely redundant in adult vertebrates, but organophosphates which react with NTE in vivo initiate unknown events which lead, after a delay of 1-3 weeks, to a neuropathy with degeneration of long axons. These neuropathic organophosphates leave a negatively charged group covalently attached to the active-site serine residue, and it is suggested that this may cause a toxic gain of function in NTE. (+info)
Purification and characterization of an esterase involved in cellulose acetate degradation by Neisseria sicca SB.
(48/1703)An esterase catalyzing the hydrolysis of acetyl ester moieties in cellulose acetate was purified 1,110-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from the culture supernatant of Neisseria sicca SB, which can assimilate cellulose acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 40 kDa and the isoelectric point was 5.3. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 8.0-8.5 and 45 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of acetyl saccharides, p-nitrophenyl esters of short-chain fatty acids, and was slightly active toward aliphatic and aromatic esters. The K(m) and Vmax for cellulose acetate (degree of substitution, 0.88) and p-nitrophenyl acetate were 0.0162% (716 microM as acetyl content in the polymer) and 36.0 microM, and 66.8 and 39.1 mumol/min/mg, respectively. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate, which indicated that the enzyme was a serine esterase. (+info)