Lysosomal and cytosolic sialic acid 9-O-acetylesterase activities can Be encoded by one gene via differential usage of a signal peptide-encoding exon at the N terminus.
(25/1703)9-O-Acetylation is one of the most common modifications of sialic acids, and it can affect several sialic acid-mediated recognition phenomena. We previously reported a cDNA encoding a lysosomal sialic acid-specific 9-O-acetylesterase, which traverses the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi pathway and localizes primarily to lysosomes and endosomes. In this study, we report a variant cDNA derived from the same gene that contains a different 5' region. This cDNA has a putative open reading frame lacking a signal peptide-encoding sequence and is thus a candidate for the previously described cytosolic sialic acid 9-O-acetylesterase activity. Epitope-tagged constructs confirm that the new sequence causes the protein product to be targeted to the cytosol and has esterase activity. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to distinguish the two forms of message, we show that although the lysosomal sialic acid-specific 9-O-acetylesterase message has a widespread pattern of expression in adult mouse tissues, this cytosolic sialic acid 9-O-acetylesterase form has a rather restricted distribution, with the strongest expression in the liver, ovary, and brain. Using a polyclonal antibody directed against the 69-amino acid region common to both proteins, we confirmed that the expression of glycosylated and nonglycosylated polypeptides occurred in appropriate subcellular fractions of normal mouse tissues. Rodent liver polypeptides reacting to the antibody also co-purify with previously described lysosomal sialic acid esterase activity and at least a portion of the cytosolic activity. Thus, two sialic acid 9-O-acetylesterases found in very different subcellular compartments can be encoded by a single gene by differential usage of a signal peptide-encoding exon at the N terminus. The 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends results and the differences in tissue-specific expression suggest that expression of these two products may be differentially regulated by independent promoters. (+info)
Human serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase's retained hydrophobic N-terminal leader sequence associates with HDLs by binding phospholipids : apolipoprotein A-I stabilizes activity.
(26/1703)In serum, human paraoxonase/arylesterase (PON1) is found exclusively associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) and contributes to its antiatherogenic properties by inhibiting low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Difficulties in purifying PON1 from apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) suggested that PON1's association with HDL may occur through a direct binding between these 2 proteins. An unusual property of PON1 is that the mature protein retains its hydrophobic N-terminal signal sequence. By expressing in vitro a mutant PON1 with a cleavable N-terminus, we demonstrate that PON1 associates with lipoproteins through its N-terminus by binding phospholipids directly rather than binding apoA-I. Nonetheless, apoA-I stabilized arylesterase activity more than did phospholipid alone, apoA-II, or apoE. Consequently, we studied the role of apoA-I in PON1 expression and HDL association in mice genetically deficient in apoA-I. Though present in HDL fractions at decreased levels, PON1 arylesterase activity was less stable than in control mice. Furthermore, PON1 could be competitively removed from HDL by phospholipids, suggesting that PON1's retained N-terminal peptide allows transfer of the enzyme between phospholipid surfaces. Thus, our data suggest that PON1 is stabilized by apoA-I, and its binding to HDL and physiological distribution are dependent on the direct binding of the retained hydrophobic N-terminus to phospholipids optimally presented in association with apoA-I. (+info)
Solubilization and partial characterization of homogalacturonan-methyltransferase from microsomal membranes of suspension-cultured tobacco cells.
(27/1703)The transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine onto the carboxyl group of alpha-1,4-linked-galactosyluronic acid residues in the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan (HGA) is catalyzed by an enzyme commonly referred to as pectin methyltransferase. A pectin methyltransferase from microsomal membranes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was previously characterized (F. Goubet, L.N. Council, D. Mohnen  Plant Physiol 116: 337-347) and named HGA methyltransferase (HGA-MT). We report the solubilization of HGA-MT from tobacco membranes. Approximately 22% of the HGA-MT activity in total membranes was solubilized by 0.65% (w/v) 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic acid containing 1 mM dithioerythritol. The addition of phosphatidylcholine and the methyl acceptors HGA or pectin (30% degree of esterification) to solubilized enzyme increased HGA-MT activity to 35% of total membrane-bound HGA-MT activity. Solubilized HGA-MT has a pH optimum of 7.8, an apparent K(m) for S-adenosyl-L-methionine of 18 microM, and an apparent V(max) of 0. 121 pkat mg(-1) of protein. The apparent K(m) for HGA and for pectin is 0.1 to 0.2 mg mL(-1). Methylated product was solubilized with boiling water and ammonium oxalate, two conditions used to solubilize pectin from the cell wall. The release of 75% to 90% of the radioactivity from the product pellet by mild base treatment showed that the methyl group was incorporated as a methyl ester rather than a methyl ether. The fragmentation of at least 55% to 70% of the radiolabeled product by endopolygalacturonase, and the loss of radioactivity from the product by treatment with pectin methylesterase, demonstrated that the bulk of the methylated product produced by the solubilized enzyme was pectin. (+info)
Carboxyl ester lipase activity in milk prevents fat-derived intestinal injury in neonatal mice.
(28/1703)Carboxyl ester lipase (bile salt-stimulated lipase) is a pancreatic enzyme capable of hydrolyzing esters of cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins. It also efficiently digests triglycerides (TG) into free fatty acids and glycerol and is abundant in the milk of humans and several other species. We used the mouse as a model to test the hypothesis that milk-derived carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) digests milk TG and that without its activity milk lipids and their digestion intermediates can disrupt the intestinal epithelium of neonates. CEL protein and enzymatic activity were shown to be abundant in mouse milk. After 24-h administration of the CEL-specific inhibitor, WAY-121,751-5, the small intestines of treated and control neonates were analyzed histologically for signs of fat malabsorption and injury to their villus epithelium. In vehicle-fed controls, TG were digested and absorbed in the duodenum and jejunum, whereas, in inhibitor-fed littermates, large intracellular neutral lipid droplets accumulated in enterocytes of the ileum, resulting in damage to the villus epithelium. Similar results were observed in neonates nursed by CEL knockout females compared with heterozygous controls. The results suggest that lack of CEL activity causes incomplete digestion of milk fat and lipid accumulation by enterocytes in the ileum of neonatal mice. (+info)
Efficient adaptational demethylation of chemoreceptors requires the same enzyme-docking site as efficient methylation.
(29/1703)The mechanistic basis of sensory adaptation and gradient sensing in bacterial chemotaxis is reversible covalent modification of transmembrane chemoreceptors, methylation, and demethylation at specific glutamyl residues in their cytoplasmic domains. These reactions are catalyzed by a dedicated methyltransferase CheR and a dedicated methylesterase CheB. The esterase is also a deamidase that creates certain methyl-accepting glutamyls by hydrolysis of glutamine side chains. We investigated the action of CheB and its activated form, phospho-CheB, on a truncated form of the aspartate receptor of Escherichia coli that was missing the last 5 aa of the intact receptor. The deleted pentapeptide is conserved in several chemoreceptors in enteric and related bacteria. The truncated receptor was much less efficiently demethylated and deamidated than intact receptor, but essentially was unperturbed for kinase activation or transmembrane signaling. CheB bound specifically to an affinity column carrying the isolated pentapeptide, implying that in the intact receptor the pentapeptide serves as a docking site for the methylesterase/deamidase and that the truncated receptor was inefficiently modified because the enzyme could not dock. It is striking that the same pentapeptide serves as an activity-enhancing docking site for the methyltransferase CheR, the other enzyme involved in adaptational covalent modification of chemoreceptors. A shared docking site raises the tantalizing possibility that relative rates of methylation and demethylation could be influenced by competition between the two enzymes at that site. (+info)
Homology modeling and active-site residues probing of the thermophilic Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius esterase 2.
(30/1703)The moderate thermophilic eubacterium Alicyclobacillus (formerly Bacillus) acidocaldarius expresses a thermostable carboxylesterase (esterase 2) belonging to the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-like group of the esterase/lipase family. Based on secondary structures predictions and a secondary structure-driven multiple sequence alignment with remote homologous protein of known three-dimensional (3D) structure, we previously hypothesized for this enzyme the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold typical of several lipases and esterases and identified Ser155, Asp252, and His282 as the putative members of the catalytic triad. In this paper we report the construction of a 3D model for this enzyme based on the structure of mouse acetylcholinesterase complexed with fasciculin. The model reveals the topological organization of the fold corroborating our predictions. As regarding the active-site residues, Ser155, Asp252, and His282 are located close to each other at hydrogen bond distances. Their catalytic role was here probed by biochemical and mutagenic studies. Moreover, on the basis of the secondary structure-driven multiple sequence alignment and the 3D structural model, a residue supposed important for catalysis, Gly84, was mutated to Ser. The activity of the mutated enzyme was drastically reduced. We propose that Gly84 is part of a putative "oxyanion hole" involved in the stabilization of the transition state similar to the C group of the esterase/lipase family. (+info)
A modular cinnamoyl ester hydrolase from the anaerobic fungus Piromyces equi acts synergistically with xylanase and is part of a multiprotein cellulose-binding cellulase-hemicellulase complex.
(31/1703)A collection of clones, isolated from a Piromyces equi cDNA expression library by immunoscreening with antibodies raised against affinity purified multienzyme fungal cellulase-hemicellulase complex, included one which expressed cinnamoyl ester hydrolase activity. The P. equi cinnamoyl ester hydrolase gene (estA) comprised an open reading frame of 1608 nt encoding a protein (EstA) of 536 amino acids and 55540 Da. EstA was modular in structure and comprised three distinct domains. The N-terminal domain was closely similar to a highly conserved non-catalytic 40-residue docking domain which is prevalent in cellulases and hemicellulases from three species of anaerobic fungi and binds to a putative scaffolding protein during assembly of the fungal cellulase complex. The second domain was also not required for esterase activity and appeared to be an atypically large linker comprising multiple tandem repeats of a 13-residue motif. The C-terminal 270 residues of EstA contained an esterase catalytic domain that exhibited overall homology with a small family of esterases, including acetylxylan esterase D (XYLD) from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and acetylxylan esterase from Aspergillus niger. This region also contained several smaller blocks of residues that displayed homology with domains tentatively identified as containing the essential catalytic residues of a larger group of serine hydrolases. A truncated variant of EstA, comprising the catalytic domain alone (EstA'), was expressed in Escherichia coli as a thioredoxin fusion protein and was purified to homogeneity. EstA' was active against synthetic and plant cell-wall-derived substrates, showed a marked preference for cleaving 1-->5 ester linkages between ferulic acid and arabinose in feruloylated arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides and was inhibited by the serine-specific protease inhibitor aminoethylbenzene-sulphonylfluoride. EstA' acted synergistically with xylanase to release more than 60% of the esterified ferulic acid from the arabinoxylan component of plant cell walls. Western analysis confirmed that EstA is produced by P. equi and is a component of the aggregated multienzyme cellulase-hemicellulase complex. Hybrid proteins, harbouring one, two or three iterations of the conserved 40-residue fungal docking domain fused to the reporter protein glutathione S-transferase, were produced. Western blot analysis of immobilized P. equi cellulase-hemicellulase complex demonstrated that each of the hybrid proteins bound to a 97 kDa polypeptide in the extracellular complex. (+info)
Ferric enterochelin transport in Yersinia enterocolitica: molecular and evolutionary aspects.
(32/1703)Yersinia enterocolitica is well equipped for siderophore piracy, encompassing the utilization of siderophores such as ferrioxamine, ferrichrome, and ferrienterochelin. In this study, we report on the molecular and functional characterization of the Yersinia fep-fes gene cluster orthologous to the Escherichia coli ferrienterochelin transport genes (fepA, fepDGC, and fepB) and the esterase gene fes. In vitro transcription-translation analysis identified polypeptides of 30 and 35 kDa encoded by fepC and fes, respectively. A frameshift mutation within the fepA gene led to expression of a truncated polypeptide of 40 kDa. The fepD, fepG, and fes genes of Y. enterocolitica were shown to complement corresponding E. coli mutants. Insertional mutagenesis of fepD or fes genes abrogates enterochelin-supported growth of Y. enterocolitica on iron-chelated media. In contrast to E. coli, the fep-fes gene cluster in Y. enterocolitica consists solely of genes required for uptake and utilization of enterochelin (fep) and not of enterochelin synthesis genes such as entF. By Southern hybridization, fepDGC and fes sequences could be detected in Y. enterocolitica biotypes IB, IA, and II but not in biotype IV strains, Yersinia pestis, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains. According to sequence alignment data and the coherent structure of the Yersinia fep-fes gene cluster, we suggest early genetic divergence of ferrienterochelin uptake determinants among species of the family Enterobacteriaceae. (+info)