Localization of a candidate surfactant convertase to type II cells, macrophages, and surfactant subfractions. (1/410)

Pulmonary surfactant exists in the alveolus in several distinct subtypes that differ in their morphology, composition, and surface activity. Experiments by others have implicated a serine hydrolase in the production of the inactive small vesicular subtype of surfactant (N. J. Gross and R. M. Schultz. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1044: 222-230, 1990). Our laboratory recently identified this enzyme in the rat as the serine carboxylesterase ES-2 [F. Barr, H. Clark, and S. Hawgood. Am. J. Physiol. 274 (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 18): L404-L410, 1998]. In the present study, we determined the cellular sites of expression of ES-2 in rat lung using a digoxygenin-labeled ES-2 riboprobe. ES-2 mRNA was localized to type II cells and alveolar macrophages but not to Clara cells. Using a specific ES-2 antibody, we determined the protein distribution of ES-2 in the lung by immunohistochemistry, and it was found to be consistent with the sites of mRNA expression. Most of the ES-2 in rat bronchoalveolar lavage is in the surfactant-depleted supernatant, but ES-2 was also consistently localized to the small vesicular surfactant subfraction presumed to form as a consequence of conversion activity. These results are consistent with a role for endogenous lung ES-2 in surfactant metabolism.  (+info)

Comparison of activation of CPT-11 by rabbit and human carboxylesterases for use in enzyme/prodrug therapy. (2/410)

Several recent studies have examined the possibility of producing tumor-specific cytotoxicity with various enzyme/ prodrug combinations. The enzymes are targeted to tumor cells either with antibodies (ADEPT, antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy) or with viruses (VDEPT). The goal of the present study was to identify an appropriate enzyme for use in activating the prodrug 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piper-idino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothe cin (CPT-11). In this study, we compared the efficiency of CPT-11 metabolism by rabbit and human carboxylesterases in in vitro and in situ assays. Although the rabbit and human enzymes are very similar (81% identical; 86% homologous) and the active site amino acids are 100% identical, the rabbit enzyme was 100-1000-fold more efficient at converting CPT-11 to SN-38 in vitro and was 12-55-fold more efficient in sensitizing transfected cells to CPT-11. In vivo, Rh30 rhabdomyosarcoma cells expressing the rabbit carboxylesterase and grown as xenografts in immune-deprived mice were also more sensitive to CPT-11 than were control xenografts or xenografts expressing the human enzyme. Each of the three types of xenografts regressed when the mice were treated with CPT-11 given i.v. at 2.5 mg of CPT-11/kg/daily for 5 days/week for 2 weeks [(dx5)2] (one cycle of therapy), repeated every 21 days for a total of three cycles. However, following cessation of treatment, recurrent tumors were detected in seven of seven mice bearing control Rh30 xenografts and in two of seven mice bearing Rh30 xenografts that expressed the human enzyme. No tumors recurred in mice bearing xenografts that expressed the rabbit carboxylesterase. We conclude that rabbit carboxylesterase/CPT-11 may be a useful enzyme/prodrug combination.  (+info)

Relationship between amount of esterase and gene copy number in insecticide-resistant Myzus persicae (Sulzer). (3/410)

Overproduction of the insecticide-degrading esterases, E4 and FE4, in peach-potato aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), depends on both gene amplification and transcriptional control, the latter being associated with changes in DNA methylation. The structure and function of the aphid esterase genes have been studied but the determination of their copy number has proved difficult, a common problem with gene amplification. We have now used a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and quantitative competitive PCR to determine relative esterase gene copy numbers in aphid clones with different levels of insecticide resistance (R1, R2 and R3). There are approx. 4-fold increases between susceptible, R1, R2 and R3 aphids, reaching a maximum of approx. 80 times more genes in R3; this gives proportionate increases in esterase protein relative to susceptible aphids. Thus there is no overexpression of the amplified genes, in contrast with what was thought previously. For E4 genes, the loss of 5-methylcytosine is correlated with a loss of expression, greatly decreasing the amount of enzyme relative to the copy number.  (+info)

Establishment of an activated macrophage cell line, A-THP-1, and its properties. (4/410)

A new macrophage cell line with activated character and unique morphology was isolated by selecting adherent cells from the human monocytic cell line THP-1. The original THP-1 cells had been cultured for more than 9 years using 25 cm2 flasks, when cells with a different morphology appeared, adhering to the bottoms of the culture flasks. These were selected by discarding floating nonadherent cells at every subculture. Enrichment of adherent THP-1 cells with long processes proceeded during the cultivation. These adherent THP-1 showed remarkable phenotypic changes, not only morphologically, but also functionally. Namely, increased phagocytic activity, HLA-DR expression and MLR stimulator activity were remarkable. This adherent cell line was designated as activated-THP-1 (A-THP-1), since it demonstrated characteristics of activated macrophages continuously without exogenous stimulation. A cloned A-THP-1 cell line (A-THP-1 C1) also showed the same features and contained about 10% multinucleated giant cells probably caused by cell fusion. This A-THP-1 cell line, the first activated macrophage cell line to be established, provides a good model for understanding of activation mechanisms of macrophages and multinucleation. In this paper, morphological, immunological, and biological characters of this cell line are described.  (+info)

Targeting proteins to the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum using N-terminal domains of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the 50-kDa esterase. (5/410)

Previous studies identified two intrinsic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, isozyme 1 (11beta-HSD) and the 50-kDa esterase (E3), sharing some amino acid sequence motifs in their N-terminal transmembrane (TM) domains. Both are type II membrane proteins with the C terminus projecting into the lumen of the ER. This finding implied that the N-terminal TM domains of 11beta-HSD and E3 may constitute a lumenal targeting signal (LTS). To investigate this hypothesis we created chimeric fusions using the putative targeting sequences and the reporter gene, Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein. Transfected COS cells expressing LTS-green fluorescent protein chimeras were examined by fluorescent microscopy and electron microscopic immunogold labeling. The orientation of expressed chimeras was established by immunocytofluorescent staining of selectively permeabilized COS cells. In addition, protease protection assays of membranes in the presence and absence of detergents was used to confirm lumenal or the cytosolic orientation of the constructed chimeras. To investigate the general applicability of the proposed LTS, we fused the N terminus of E3 to the N terminus of the NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase lacking the myristoyl group and N-terminal 30-residue membrane anchor. The orientation of the cytochrome b5 reductase was reversed, from cytosolic to lumenal projection of the active domain. These observations establish that an amino acid sequence consisting of short basic or neutral residues at the N terminus, followed by a specific array of hydrophobic residues terminating with acidic residues, is sufficient for lumenal targeting of single-pass proteins that are structurally and functionally unrelated.  (+info)

Inactivation and loss of antigenicity of esterase by sugars and a steroid. (6/410)

Glycation, the non-enzymic reaction of sugars with proteins, has an important role in the complications of diabetes. It has been studied mostly in structural proteins but more recently has been shown to inactivate enzymes. Previous evidence from our laboratory indicated that glycation-induced inactivation and loss of antigenicity of catalase and superoxide dismutase are simultaneous. Esterase, which decreases activity in the lens in senile cataract and diabetes, was measured by a spectrophotometric assay using p-nitrophenyl acetate as the substrate. Here we investigated the inactivation of carboxylesterase (EC by sugars of different glycating power and prednisolone-21-hemisuccinate while simultaneously monitoring the loss of antigenicity. Antigenicity was assessed by immunoprecipitation and by dot-blotting the glycated and non-glycated fractions of enzymes separated by affinity chromatography. Ribose and fructose inactivated more rapidly than glucose and glucose 6-phosphate. The esterase was progressively inactivated by prednisolone-21-hemisuccinate at a lower concentration. Activity and antigenicity were lost simultaneously. The glycated enzyme had entirely lost its antigenicity. These results further support the idea that inactivation of enzyme and loss of antigenicity are simultaneous.  (+info)

A non-AUG-defined alternative open reading frame of the intestinal carboxyl esterase mRNA generates an epitope recognized by renal cell carcinoma-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in situ. (7/410)

A number of Ags recognized by tumor-reactive T cells have been characterized, including nonmutated gene products and a variety of epitopes shown to arise from either mutated or alternatively processed transcripts. Here, we report that the screening of a cDNA library with an HLA-B7-restricted renal cell carcinoma-reactive T cell clone derived from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that were clonally amplified in vivo (as assessed by TCRBV complementarity determining region-3 length distribution analysis) resulted in the isolation of a nonamer encoded by an alternative open reading frame (ORF) (a +1 frameshift) of the intestinal carboxyl esterase gene. This peptide binds HLA-B*0702-presenting molecules as assessed in an immunofluorescence-based peptide binding assay using transfected T2 cells. Constitutive expression of this alternative ORF protein was observed in all transformed HLA-B7+ renal cell lines that were recognized in cytotoxicity assays by the TILs. The intestinal carboxyl esterase gene is transcribed in renal cell carcinoma tumors as well as in normal liver, intestinal, or renal tissues. Mutation of the natural ATG translation initiation site did not alter recognition, indicating that frameshifting (i.e., slippage of the ribosome forward) and recoding are not involved. In addition, a point mutation of the three AUG codons that may be used as alternative translation initiation sites in the +1 ORF did not abolish recognition, whereas mutation of an upstream ACG codon did, indicating that the latter codon initiates the translation of the alternative ORF. These results further extend the types of Ags that can be recognized by tumor-reactive TILs in situ (i.e., leading to clonal T cell expansion).  (+info)

Microsomal long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (carboxylesterase ES-4) is regulated by thyroxine. (8/410)

Long chain acyl-CoA thioesterase activity is mainly located in microsomes after subcellular fractionation of liver from untreated rats. The physiological function and regulation of expression of this activity is not known. In the present study we have investigated the effect of thyroxine on expression of carboxylesterase ES-4, the major acyl-CoA thioesterase of liver microsomes. Thyroidectomy of rats decreased the palmitoyl-CoA thioesterase activity to about 25% of normal activity. This decrease was accompanied by similar decreases at the protein and mRNA levels (31% and 57%, respectively, of controls). Treatment with thyroxine completely reversed the effect of thyroidectomy and resulted in elevated levels in both thyroidectomized and control rats. For reasons of comparison we also studied the possibility that ES-10 and ES-2, two other members of the same gene family, are affected by thyroxine. ES-10 was not changed at the protein or mRNA level by any of the treatments, while ES-2 expression in liver was decreased by thyroxine treatment. The data shows that changes in activity and expression of ES-4 correlate to thyroxine status in the rat suggesting a physiological regulatory role by this hormone. Since thyroxine regulates the expression of lipogenic enzymes, these results are consistent with a function for this microsomal acyl-CoA thioesterase in fatty acid synthesis and/or secretion, rather than in oxidative degradation of fatty acids.  (+info)