Transgenic UCP1 in white adipocytes modulates mitochondrial membrane potential.
To test if mitochondrial uncoupling in white adipocytes is responsible for obesity resistance of the aP2-Ucp transgenic mice expressing ectopic uncoupling protein 1 (UCPI) in white fat, mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)) was estimated by flow cytometry in adipocytes isolated from gonadal fat. Ectopic UCP1 (approximately 0.8 mol UCP1/mol respiratory chain) decreased the delta psi(m) and rendered the potential sensitive to GDP and fatty acids. These ligands of UCP1 had no effect on delta psi(m) in white adipocytes from non-transgenic mice, suggesting that the function of endogenous UCP2 in adipocytes was not affected. The results support the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling in white fat may prevent development of obesity. (+info)
Release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum increases mitochondrial [Ca2+] in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.
1. The Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator rhod-2 was used to measure mitochondrial [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) in single smooth muscle cells from the rat pulmonary artery, while simultaneously monitoring cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) with fura-2. 2. Application of caffeine produced an increase in [Ca2+]i and also increased [Ca2+]m. The increase in [Ca2+]m occurred after the increase in [Ca2+]i, and remained elevated for a considerable time after [Ca2+]i had returned to resting values. 3. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), which causes the mitochondrial membrane potential to collapse, markedly attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]m following caffeine application and also increased the half-time for recovery of [Ca2+]i to resting values. 4. Activation of purinoceptors with ATP also produced increases in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m in these smooth muscle cells. In some cells, oscillations in [Ca2+]i were observed during ATP application, which produced corresponding oscillations in [Ca2+]m and membrane currents. 5. This study provides direct evidence that Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, either through ryanodine or inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, increases both cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+] in smooth muscle cells. These results have potential implications both for the role of mitochondria in Ca2+ regulation in smooth muscle, and for understanding how cellular metabolism is regulated. (+info)
Cimetidine transport in brush-border membrane vesicles from rat small intestine.
In previous studies, sulfoxide metabolite was observed in animal and human intestinal perfusions of cimetidine and other H2-antagonists. A sequence of follow-up studies is ongoing to assess the intestinal contributions of drug metabolism and drug and metabolite transport to variable drug absorption. An evaluation of these contributions to absorption variability is carried out in isolated fractions of the absorptive cells to uncouple the processes involved. In this report, data is presented on the drug entry step from a study on [3H]cimetidine uptake into isolated brush-border membrane vesicles from rat small intestine. A saturable component for cimetidine uptake was characterized with a Vmax and Km (mean +/- S.E.M.) of 6.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/30s/mg protein and 8.4 +/- 2.0 mM, respectively. Initial binding, and possibly intravesicular uptake, was inhibited by other cationic compounds including ranitidine, procainamide, imipramine, erythromycin, and cysteamine but not by TEA or by the organic anion, probenecid. Initial uptake was not inhibited by amino acids methionine, cysteine, or histidine, by the metabolite cimetidine sulfoxide, or by inhibitors of cimetidine sulfoxidation, methimazole, and diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. Equilibrium uptake was inhibited by ranitidine, procainamide, and cysteamine but not by erythromycin or imipramine. Initial cimetidine uptake was stimulated by an outwardly directed H+ gradient, and efflux was enhanced by an inwardly directed H+ gradient. Collapse of the H+ gradient as well as voltage-clamping potential difference to zero significantly reduced initial cimetidine uptake. The data is supportive of both a cimetidine/H+ exchange mechanism and a driving-force contribution from an inside negative proton or cation diffusion potential. (+info)
Reactive oxygen metabolites increase mitochondrial calcium in endothelial cells: implication of the Ca2+/Na+ exchanger.
In endothelial cells, a bolus of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or oxygen metabolites generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO) increased the mitochondrial calcium concentration [Ca2+]m. Both agents caused a biphasic increase in [Ca2+]m which was preceded by a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration [Ca2+]c (18 and 6 seconds for H2O2 and HX-XO, respectively). The peak and plateau elevations of [Ca2+] were consistently higher in the mitochondrial matrix than in the cytosol. In Ca2+-free/EGTA medium, the plateau phase of elevated [Ca2+] evoked by H2O2 due to capacitative Ca2+ influx was abolished in the cytosol, but was maintained in the mitochondria. In contrast to H2O2 and HX-XO, ATP which binds the P2Y purinoceptors induced an increase in [Ca2+]m that was similar to that of [Ca2+]c. When cells were first stimulated with inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate-generating agonists or the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), subsequent addition of H2O2 did not affect [Ca2+]c, but still caused an elevation of [Ca2+]m. Moreover, the specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial Ca2+/Na+ exchanger, 7-chloro-3,5-dihydro-5-phenyl-1H-4.1-benzothiazepine-2-on (CGP37157), did not potentiate the effects of H2O2 and HX-XO on [Ca2+]m, while causing a marked increase in the peak [Ca2+]m and a significant attenuation of the rate of [Ca2+]m efflux upon addition of histamine or CPA. In permeabilized cells, H2O2 mimicked the effects of CGP37157 causing an increase in the basal level of matrix free Ca2+ and decreased efflux. Dissipation of the electrochemical proton gradient by carbonylcyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), and blocade of the Ca2+ uptake by ruthenium red prevented [Ca2+]m increases evoked by H2O2. These results demonstrate that the H2O2-induced elevation in [Ca2+]m results from a transfer of Ca2+ secondary to increased [Ca2+]c, and an inhibition of the Ca2+/Na+ electroneutral exchanger of the mitochondria. (+info)
Roles of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange and of mitochondria in the regulation of presynaptic Ca2+ and spontaneous glutamate release.
The release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic terminals depends on an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). In addition to the opening of presynaptic Ca2+ channels during excitation, other Ca2+ transport systems may be involved in changes in [Ca2+]i. We have studied the regulation of [Ca2+]i in nerve terminals of hippocampal cells in culture by the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger and by mitochondria. In addition, we have measured changes in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) before and after the inhibition of the exchanger and of mitochondrial metabolism. We found rather heterogeneous [Ca2+]i responses of individual presynaptic terminals after inhibition of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange. The increase in [Ca2+]i became more uniform and much larger after additional treatment of the cells with mitochondrial inhibitors. Correspondingly, sEPSC frequencies changed very little when only Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange was inhibited, but increased dramatically after additional inhibition of mitochondria. Our results provide evidence for prominent roles of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange and mitochondria in presynaptic Ca2+ regulation and spontaneous glutamate release. (+info)
-->H+/2e- stoichiometry in NADH-quinone reductase reactions catalyzed by bovine heart submitochondrial particles.
Tightly coupled bovine heart submitochondrial particles treated to activate complex I and to block ubiquinol oxidation were capable of rapid uncoupler-sensitive inside-directed proton translocation when a limited amount of NADH was oxidized by the exogenous ubiquinone homologue Q1. External alkalization, internal acidification and NADH oxidation were followed by the rapidly responding (t1/2 < or = 1 s) spectrophotometric technique. Quantitation of the initial rates of NADH oxidation and external H+ decrease resulted in a stoichiometric ratio of 4 H+ vectorially translocated per 1 NADH oxidized at pH 8.0. ADP-ribose, a competitive inhibitor of the NADH binding site decreased the rates of proton translocation and NADH oxidation without affecting -->H+/2e- stoichiometry. Rotenone, piericidin and thermal deactivation of complex I completely prevented NADH-induced proton translocation in the NADH-endogenous ubiquinone reductase reaction. NADH-exogenous Q1 reductase activity was only partially prevented by rotenone. The residual rotenone- (or piericidin-) insensitive NADH-exogenous Q1 reductase activity was found to be coupled with vectorial uncoupler-sensitive proton translocation showing the same -->H+/2e- stoichiometry of 4. It is concluded that the transfer of two electrons from NADH to the Q1-reactive intermediate located before the rotenone-sensitive step is coupled with translocation of 4 H+. (+info)
Bcl-2 protects against FCCP-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization in PC12 cells.
This report addresses the relation between Bcl-2 and mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) in apoptotic cell death. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells are differentiated into neuron-like cells with nerve growth factor (NGF). It is known that Bcl-2 can attenuate apoptosis induced by deprivation of neurotrophic factor. The protective effect of Bcl-2 has been correlated with preservation of DeltaPsi(m). Protonophores, such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), collapse the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane, resulting in a complete abolition of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Based on the analysis of morphology, of phosphatidylserine exposure and of nuclear fragmentation we conclude that FCCP induces apoptosis in PC12 cells, which can be prevented by overexpression of Bcl-2. To determine whether the cytoprotective effect of Bcl-2 is due to stabilization of DeltaPsi(m), we investigated the effect of Bcl-2 on changes in DeltaPsi(m), induced by FCCP in PC12 cells. We showed that treatment with FCCP induced a reduction in DeltaPsi(m), as assessed with the lipophilic cationic membrane potential-sensitive dye JC-1, and that Bcl-2 protects against FCCP-induced changes in NGF differentiated PC12 cells. Our data indicate that Bcl-2 protects against FCCP-induced cell death by stabilizing DeltaPsi(m). (+info)
Purification and ligand binding of EmrR, a regulator of a multidrug transporter.
EmrR, the repressor of the emrRAB operon of Escherichia coli, was purified to 95% homogeneity. EmrR was found to bind putative ligands of the EmrAB pump-2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoro-methoxy)phenylhydrazone-with affinities in the micromolar range. Equilibrium dialysis experiments suggested one bound ligand per monomer of the dimeric EmrR. (+info)