Synthesis and degradation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid by Penicillium citrinum.
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which is a precursor of ethylene in plants, has never been known to occur in microorganisms. We describe the synthesis of ACC by Penicillium citrinum, purification of ACC synthase [EC 188.8.131.52] and ACC deaminase [EC 184.108.40.206], and their properties. Analyses of P. citrinum culture showed occurrence of ACC in the culture broth and in the cell extract. ACC synthase was purified from cells grown in a medium containing 0.05% L-methionine and ACC deaminase was done from cells incubated in a medium containing 1% 2-aminoisobutyrate. The purified ACC synthase, with a specific activity of 327 milliunit/mg protein, showed a single band of M(r) 48,000 in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme by gel filtration was 96,000 Da. The ACC synthase had the Km for S-adenosyl-L-methionine of 1.74 mM and kcat of 0.56 s-1 per monomer. The purified ACC deaminase, with a specific activity of 4.7 unit/mg protein, showed one band in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of M(r) 41,000. The molecular mass of the native ACC deaminase was 68,000 Da by gel filtration. The enzyme had a Km for ACC of 4.8 mM and kcat of 3.52 s-1. The presence of 7 mM Cu2+ in alkaline buffer solution was effective for increasing the stability of the ACC deaminase in the process of purification. (+info)
Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase, a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage during alpha-oxidation of 3-methyl-branched fatty acids.
In the third step of the alpha-oxidation of 3-methyl-branched fatty acids such as phytanic acid, a 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA is cleaved into formyl-CoA and a 2-methyl-branched fatty aldehyde. The cleavage enzyme was purified from the matrix protein fraction of rat liver peroxisomes and identified as a protein made up of four identical subunits of 63 kDa. Its activity proved to depend on Mg(2+) and thiamine pyrophosphate, a hitherto unrecognized cofactor of alpha-oxidation. Formyl-CoA and 2-methylpentadecanal were identified as reaction products when the purified enzyme was incubated with 2-hydroxy-3-methylhexadecanoyl-CoA as the substrate. Hence the enzyme catalyzes a carbon-carbon cleavage, and we propose calling it 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase. Sequences derived from tryptic peptides of the purified rat protein were used as queries to recover human expressed sequence tags from the databases. The composite cDNA sequence of the human lyase contained an ORF of 1,734 bases that encodes a polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 63,732 Da. Recombinant human protein, expressed in mammalian cells, exhibited lyase activity. The lyase displayed homology to a putative Caenorhabditis elegans protein that resembles bacterial oxalyl-CoA decarboxylases. Similarly to the decarboxylases, a thiamine pyrophosphate-binding consensus domain was present in the C-terminal part of the lyase. Although no peroxisome targeting signal, neither 1 nor 2, was apparent, transfection experiments with constructs encoding green fluorescent protein fused to the full-length lyase or its C-terminal pentapeptide indicated that the C terminus of the lyase represents a peroxisome targeting signal 1 variant. (+info)
Development and use of a reverse transcription-PCR assay to study expression of Tri5 by Fusarium species in vitro and in planta.
The Tri5 gene encodes trichodiene synthase, which catalyzes the first reaction in the trichothecene biosynthetic pathway. In vitro, a direct relationship was observed between Tri5 expression and the increase in deoxynivalenol production over time. We developed a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay to quantify Tri5 gene expression in trichothecene-producing strains of Fusarium species. We observed an increase in Tri5 expression following treatment of Fusarium culmorum with fungicides, and we also observed an inverse relationship between Tri5 expression and biomass, as measured by beta-D-glucuronidase activity, during colonization of wheat (cv. Avalon) seedlings by F. culmorum. RT-PCR analysis also showed that for ears of wheat cv. Avalon inoculated with F. culmorum, there were different levels of Tri5 expression in grain and chaff at later growth stages. We used the Tri5-specific primers to develop a PCR assay to detect trichothecene-producing Fusarium species in infected plant material. (+info)
Spider mite-induced (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase activity in cucumber and lima bean. The first dedicated step in acyclic C11-homoterpene biosynthesis.
Many plant species respond to herbivory with de novo production of a mixture of volatiles that attracts carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. One of the major components in the blend of volatiles produced by many different plant species in response to herbivory by insects and spider mites is the homoterpene 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E), 7-nonatriene. One study (J. Donath, W. Boland  Phytochemistry 39: 785-790) demonstrated that a number of plant species can convert the acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol (3S)-(E)-nerolidol to this homoterpene. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) both produce 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene in response to herbivory. We report the presence in cucumber and lima bean of a sesquiterpene synthase catalyzing the formation of (3S)-(E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate. The enzyme is inactive in uninfested cucumber leaves, slightly active in uninfested lima bean leaves, and strongly induced by feeding of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on both plant species, but not by mechanical wounding. The activities of the (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase correlated well with the levels of release of 4, 8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene from the leaves of the different treatments. Thus, (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase is a good candidate for a regulatory role in the release of the important signaling molecule 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene. (+info)
Phytanic acid alpha-oxidation: identification of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase in rat liver and its localisation in peroxisomes.
Phytanic acid is broken down by alpha-oxidation in three steps finally yielding pristanic acid. The first step occurs in peroxisomes and is catalysed by phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase. We have studied the second step in the alpha-oxidation pathway, which involves conversion of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA to pristanal catalysed by 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase. To this end, we have developed a stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay allowing activity measurements in rat liver homogenates. Cell fractionation studies demonstrate that in rat liver 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase is localised in peroxisomes. This finding may have important implications for inherited diseases in man characterised by impaired phytanic acid alpha-oxidation. (+info)
Expression pattern of genes encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase and sesquiterpene cyclase in cotton suspension-cultured cells treated with fungal elicitors.
Cotton plants accumulate sesquiterpene aldehydes in pigment glands. The two enzymes farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) and (+)-delta-cadinene synthase (CAD), a sesquiterpene cyclase, are involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA (garfps) encoding FPS was isolated from Gossypium arboreum and identified by in vitro enzymatic assay of the garfps protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Treatment of G. arboreum suspension-cultured cells with an elicitor preparation obtained from the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae dramatically induced transcription of both FPS and CAD, paralleling the accumulation of the sesquiterpene aldehydes in these cells. For G. australe, a wild species from Australia, the V. dahliae elicitor preparation also caused an induction of FPS but only a low rate of induction of CAD, apparently because of a constitutive expression of the sesquiterpene cyclase gene in suspension-cultured cells. Two transcripts and proteins of FPS were detected in the elicited G. australe cells; the smaller FPS seemed to be de novo synthesized after elicitation. Furthermore, G. australe-cultured cells accumulated the cadinene, instead of sesquiterpene aldehydes, indicating that the biosynthetic pathway leading to sesquiterpene aldehydes was absent or blocked after FPP cyclization. (+info)
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase induced by ACC synthesized and accumulated in Penicillium citrinum intracellular spaces.
We have already described how 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which is a precursor of the plant hormone ethylene, is synthesized in Penicillium citrinum through the same reaction by the catalysis of ACC synthase [EC 220.127.116.11] as in higher plants. In addition, ACC deaminase [EC 18.104.22.168], which degrades ACC to 2-oxobutyrate and ammonia, was also purified from this strain. To study control of induction of ACC deaminase in this organism, we have isolated and analyzed the cDNA of P. citrinum ACC deaminase and studied the expression of ACC deaminase mRNA in P. citrinum cells. By the analysis of peptides from the digests of the purified and modified ACC deaminase with lysylendopeptidase, 70 % of its amino acid sequences were obtained. These amino acid sequences were used to identify a cDNA, consisting of 1,233 bp with an open reading frame of 1,080 bp encoding ACC deaminase with 360 amino acids. The deduced amino acids from the cDNA are identical by 52% and 45% to those of enzymes of Pseudomonas sp. ACP and Hansenula saturnus. Through Northern blot analysis, we found that the mRNA of ACC deaminase was expressed in P. citrinum cells grown in a medium containing 0.05% L-methionine. These findings suggest that ACC synthesized by ACC synthase and accumulated in P. citrinum intracellular spaces can induce the ACC deaminase that degrades the ACC. (+info)
Cloning of a sesquiterpene cyclase and its functional expression by domain swapping strategy.
Sesquiterpene cyclase, the first committed step enzyme from the general isoprenoid building block farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) for the synthesis of phytoalexin capsidiol, was isolated from the UV-C treated leaves of Capsicum annuum. This sesquiterpene cyclase, termed as CASC2 showing 77% amino acid identity with the previously cloned sesquiterpene cyclase CASC1, was composed of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 64,907. The mRNA expression pattern of CASC2 was very similar to that of CASC1 during the time course of UV-C irradiated leaves of pepper on RNA blot analysis by using each specific probe. The heterologous expression in Escherichia coli using the CASC2 full length failed; however the chimeric construct of CASC2 in which the amino terminal 164 amino acid substituted by the equivalent portion of either CASC1 or tobacco sesquiterpene cyclase was capable of expressing the functional sesquiterpene cyclase activities. The radio-labeled enzymatic products catalyzed by the partially purified chimeric CASC2 were comigrated with authentic radio-labeled sesquiterpene on thin layer chromatography. (+info)