(1/2617) Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl.
O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid. (+info)
(2/2617) Anticoagulant heparan sulfate precursor structures in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells.
To understand the mechanisms that control anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSact) biosynthesis, we previously showed that HSact production in the F9 system is determined by the abundance of 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 as well as the size of the HSact precursor pool. In this study, HSact precursor structures have been studied by characterizing [6-3H]GlcN metabolically labeled F9 HS tagged with 3-O-sulfates in vitro by 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho-35S and purified 3-O-sulfotransferase-1. This later in vitro labeling allows the regions of HS destined to become the antithrombin (AT)-binding sites to be tagged for subsequent structural studies. It was shown that six 3-O-sulfation sites exist per HSact precursor chain. At least five out of six 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides in HSact precursors bind AT, whereas none of 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides from HSinact precursors bind AT. When treated with low pH nitrous or heparitinase, 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact and HSinact precursors exhibit clearly different structural features. 3-O-Sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides were AT affinity purified and sequenced by chemical and enzymatic degradations. The 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides exhibited the following structures, DeltaUA-[6-3H]GlcNAc6S-GlcUA-[6-3H]GlcNS3(35)S+/-6S-++ +IdceA2S-[6-3H]Glc NS6S. The underlined 6- and 3-O-sulfates constitute the most critical groups for AT binding in view of the fact that the precursor hexasaccharides possess all the elements for AT binding except for the 3-O-sulfate moiety. The presence of five potential AT-binding precursor hexasaccharides in all HSact precursor chains demonstrates for the first time the processive assembly of specific sequence in HS. The difference in structures around potential 3-O-sulfate acceptor sites in HSact and HSinact precursors suggests that these precursors might be generated by different concerted assembly mechanisms in the same cell. This study permits us to understand better the nature of the HS biosynthetic pathway that leads to the generation of specific saccharide sequences. (+info)
(3/2617) Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice.
It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response. (+info)
(4/2617) A statistical analysis of N- and O-glycan linkage conformations from crystallographic data.
We have generated a database of 639 glycosidic linkage structures by an exhaustive survey of the available crystallographic data for isolated oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycan-binding proteins. For isolated oligosaccharides there is relatively little crystallographic data available. A much larger number of glycoprotein and glycan-binding protein structures have now been solved in which two or more linked monosaccharides can be resolved. In the majority of these cases, only a few residues can be seen. Using the 639 glycosidic linkage structures, we have identified one or more distinct conformers for all the linkages. The O5-C1-O-C(x)' torsion angles for all these distinct conformers appear to be determined chiefly by the exo-anomeric effect. The Manalpha1-6Man linkage appears to be less restrained than the others, showing a wide degree of dispersion outside the ranges of the defined conformers. The identification of distinct conformers for glyco-sidic linkages allows "average" glycan structures to be modeled and also allows the easy identification of distorted glycosidic linkages. Such an analysis shows that the interactions between IgG Fc and its own N-linked glycan result in severe distortion of the terminal Galbeta1-4GlcNAc linkage only, indicating the strong interactions that must be present between the Gal residue and the protein surface. The applicability of this crystallographic based analysis to glycan structures in solution is discussed. This database of linkagestructures should be a very useful reference tool in three-dimensional structure determinations. (+info)
(5/2617) Tyrosine sulfation of the amino terminus of CCR5 facilitates HIV-1 entry.
Chemokine receptors and related seven-transmembrane-segment (7TMS) receptors serve as coreceptors for entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV) into target cells. Each of these otherwise diverse coreceptors contains an N-terminal region that is acidic and tyrosine rich. Here, we show that the chemokine receptor CCR5, a principal HIV-1 coreceptor, is posttranslationally modified by O-linked glycosylation and by sulfation of its N-terminal tyrosines. Sulfated tyrosines contribute to the binding of CCR5 to MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and HIV-1 gp120/CD4 complexes and to the ability of HIV-1 to enter cells expressing CCR5 and CD4. CXCR4, another important HIV-1 coreceptor, is also sulfated. Tyrosine sulfation may contribute to the natural function of many 7TMS receptors and may be a modification common to primate immunodeficiency virus coreceptors. (+info)
(6/2617) Probing cell-surface architecture through synthesis: an NMR-determined structural motif for tumor-associated mucins.
Cell-surface mucin glycoproteins are altered with the onset of oncogenesis. Knowledge of mucin structure could be used in vaccine strategies that target tumor-associated mucin motifs. Thus far, however, mucins have resisted detailed molecular analysis. Reported herein is the solution conformation of a highly complex segment of the mucin CD43. The elongated secondary structure of the isolated mucin strand approaches the stability of motifs found in folded proteins. The features required for the mucin motif to emerge are also described. Immunocharacterization of related constructs strongly suggests that the observed epitopes represent distinguishing features of tumor cell-surface architecture. (+info)
(7/2617) Structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharide oligosaccharide epitopes expressed by a capsule-deficient strain of Haemophilus influenzae Rd.
Structural elucidation of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Haemophilus influenzae, strain Rd, a capsule-deficient type d strain, has been achieved by using high-field NMR techniques and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) on delipidated LPS and core oligosaccharide samples. It was found that this organism expresses heterogeneous populations of LPS of which the oligosaccharide (OS) epitopes are subject to phase variation. ESI-MS of O-deacylated LPS revealed a series of related structures differing in the number of hexose residues linked to a conserved inner-core element, L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->2)-L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->3)-[beta-D-Glcp- (1-->4)-]- L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->5)-alpha-Kdo, and the degree of phosphorylation. The structures of the major LPS glycoforms containing three (two Glc and one Gal), four (two Glc and two Gal) and five (two Glc, two Gal and one GalNAc) hexoses were substituted by both phosphocholine (PCho) and phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) and were determined in detail. In the major glycoform, Hex3, a lactose unit, beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp, is attached at the O-2 position of the terminal heptose of the inner-core element. The Hex4 glycoform contains the PK epitope, alpha-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp while in the Hex5 glycoform, this OS is elongated by the addition of a terminal beta-D-GalpNAc residue, giving the P antigen, beta-D-GalpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-D-Glc p. The fully extended LPS glycoform (Hex5) has the following structure. [see text] The structural data provide the first definitive evidence demonstrating the expression of a globotetraose OS epitope, the P antigen, in LPS of H. influenzae. It is noteworthy that the molecular environment in which PCho units are found differs from that observed in an Rd- derived mutant strain (RM.118-28) [Risberg, A., Schweda, E. K. H. & Jansson, P-E. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem. 243, 701-707]. (+info)
(8/2617) Structural basis for the resistance of Tay-Sachs ganglioside GM2 to enzymatic degradation.
To understand the reason why, in the absence of GM2 activator protein, the GalNAc and the NeuAc in GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer) are refractory to beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, we have recently synthesized a linkage analogue of GM2 named 6'GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->6(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer). While GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->4Gal linkage, 6'-GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->6Gal linkage (Ishida, H., Ito, Y., Tanahashi, E., Li, Y.-T., Kiso, M., and Hasegawa, A. (1997) Carbohydr. Res. 302, 223-227). We have studied the enzymatic susceptibilities of GM2 and 6'GM2, as well as that of the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4Galbeta1--> 4Glcbeta1-1'Cer) and 6'GM2. In addition, the conformational properties of both GM2 and 6'GM2 were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics computation. In sharp contrast to GM2, the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac of 6'GM2 were readily hydrolyzed by beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, without GM2 activator. Among the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2, and 6'GM2, only the oligosaccharide from GM2 was resistant to beta-hexosaminidase A. Conformational analyses revealed that while GM2 has a compact and rigid oligosaccharide head group, 6'GM2 has an open spatial arrangement of the sugar units, with the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac freely accessible to external interactions. These results strongly indicate that the resistance of GM2 to enzymatic hydrolysis is because of the specific rigid conformation of the GM2 oligosaccharide. (+info)