Occupational exposure to carbofuran and the incidence of cancer in the Agricultural Health Study.
(9/31)Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide registered for use on a variety of food crops including corn, alfalfa, rice, and tobacco. An estimated 5 million pounds of carbofuran is used annually in the United States, and 45% of urban African-American women have detectable levels of carbofuran in their plasma. Nitrosated carbofuran has demonstrated mutagenic properties. We examined exposure to carbofuran and several tumor sites among 49,877 licensed pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. We obtained information regarding years of use, frequency of use in an average year, and when use began for 22 pesticides using self-administered questionnaires. Poisson regression was used to calculate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for potential confounders. Lung cancer risk was 3-fold higher for those with > 109 days of lifetime exposure to carbofuran (RR = 3.05; 95% CI, 0.94-9.87) compared with those with < 9 lifetime exposure days, with a significant dose-response trend for both days of use per year and total years of use. However, carbofuran use was not associated with lung cancer risk when nonexposed persons were used as the referent. In addition, carbofuran exposure was not associated with any other cancer site examined. Although carbamate pesticides are suspected human carcinogens, these results should be interpreted cautiously because there was no a priori hypothesis specifically linking carbofuran to lung cancer. (+info)
Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108.
(10/31)Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. (+info)
The effects of anticholinergic insecticides on human mesenchymal stem cells.
(11/31)Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are located primarily in the bone marrow and are characterized by their capacity to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages such as bone, fat, and cartilage in response to appropriate signals. Several signaling mechanisms act to control MSC survival, proliferation, and differentiation, and failure or disruption of these signaling pathways can lead to degenerative disease or neoplasia. Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides, which are used in large amounts in agriculture to control insects, are designed to disrupt acetylcholine signaling by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Effects of OP and carbamate pesticides on the human central nervous system have been well documented. However, AChE is broadly distributed, and the effects of anticholinergic insecticides on nonnervous tissue have received little attention. In the present study we found that human MSCs express AChE, which makes these cells potential targets for AChE inhibiting agents. We therefore examined the effects of an OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos, and a carbamate, carbofuran, on MSC characteristics. It was found that micromolar concentrations of these anticholinergic insecticides had no effect on MSC survival or proliferation but limited MSC differentiation capacity by inhibiting osteogenic differentiation. These results demonstrate that exposure to micromolar concentrations of OP and carbamate pesticides may affect tissue turnover and pathophysiology by interfering with MSC regulation. (+info)
Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants.
(12/31)Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil. (+info)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for carbofuran in Sprague-Dawley rats using the exposure-related dose estimating model.
(13/31)Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate), a broad spectrum N-methyl carbamate insecticide, and its metabolite, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, exert their toxicity by reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). To characterize AChE inhibition from carbofuran exposure, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed in the Exposure-Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM) platform for the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. Experimental estimates of physiological, biochemical, and physicochemical model parameters were obtained or based on data from the open literature. The PBPK/PD model structure included carbofuran metabolism in the liver to 16 known metabolites, enterohepatic circulation of glucuronic acid conjugates, and excretion in urine and feces. Bolus doses by ingestion of 50 microg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg carbofuran were simulated for the blood and brain AChE activity. The carbofuran ERDEM simulated a half-life of 5.2 h for urinary clearance, and the experimental AChE activity data were reproduced for the blood and brain. Thirty model parameters were found influential to the model outputs and were chosen for perturbation in Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the impact of their variability on the model predictions. Results of the simulation runs indicated that the minimum AChE activity in the blood ranged from 29.3 to 79.0% (as 5th and 95th percentiles) of the control level with a mean of 55.9% (standard deviation = 15.1%) compared to an experimental value of 63%. The constructed PBPK/PD model for carbofuran in the SD rat provides a foundation for extrapolating to a human model that can be used for future risk assessment. (+info)
Development of an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method for carbofuran residues.
(14/31)The haptens 4-[[(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyloxy)carbonyl]-amino]butanoic acid (BFNB) and 6-[((2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyloxy)-carbonylamino]hexanoic acid (BFNH) were synthesized and then used to develop a rapid,specific and sensitive ELISA method to determine residues of the pesticide carbofuran in a variety of matrices. A hybridoma cell line (5D3) producing anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was also established. Based on the MAbs in combination with the heterologous hapten BFNH coupled to either horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or ovalbumin(OVA), four ELISAs (formats I-IV) for the quantification of carbofuran were developed and compared. Among them, the optimized format II (the conjugate-coated direct competitive ELISA) showed the best characteristics, with an IC50 value of 18.49 ng/mL, a limit of detection of 0.11 ng/mL and the shortest assay time (1 h). This ELISA method was then applied to the determinations of carbofuran in environmental water, soil and food samples. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) ranged from 1.8% to 21.3% and the mean recoveries were 104.6%, 108.3%, 106.3% and 100.1% for water, soil, lettuce and cabbage, respectively. Thus, the ELISA method of format II exhibited the potential to develop commercial ELISA kits for a rapid detection of carbofuran for human health and environmental safety. (+info)
Measurement and computation of movement of bromide ions and carbofuran in ridged humic-sandy soil.
Potential use of the bushmint, Hyptis suaveolens, for the control of infestation by the pink stalk borer, Sesamia calamistis on maize in southern Benin, West Africa.