In vivo effects of new inhibitors of catechol-O-methyl transferase.
1. The effects of two new synthetic compounds showing in vitro catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor properties were studied in vivo and compared with the effects of nitecapone and Ro-41-0960. 2. QO IA (3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-pentanedione), QO IIR ([2-(3,4-dihydroxy-2-nitrophenyl)vinyl]phenyl ketone), nitecapone and Ro-41-0960 (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) were given to reserpinized rats 1 h before the administration of L-DOPA/carbidopa (LD/CD, 50:50 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Locomotor activity was assessed 1 h later. All the COMT inhibitors (COMTI), with the exception of QO IA, markedly potentiated LD/CD reversal of reserpine-induced akinesia. Similar results were obtained when the COMTI were coadministered with LD/CD. The effect of compound QO IIR was dose-dependent (7.5-30 mg kg(-1), i.p.). 3. The COMTI (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) potentiated LD/CD reversal of both catalepsy and hypothermia of reserpinized mice. 4. QO IIR, nitecapone and Ro-41-0960 (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced striatal 3-methyl-DOPA (3-OMD) levels and increased dopamine (DA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels. Compound QO IA was devoid of any effect on striatal amine levels. In contrast to the other inhibitors, Ro-41-0961 reduced HVA levels as well. The effect of QO IIR on striatal amine levels was dose-dependent (7.5-60 mg kg(-1), i.p.) 5. These results suggest that the new compound QO IIR is an effective peripherally acting COMT inhibitor in vivo. (+info)
COMT inhibition with tolcapone does not affect carbidopa pharmacokinetics in parkinsonian patients in levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet).
AIMS: Tolcapone is a novel catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor used as an adjunct to levodopa/carbidopa or levodopa/benserazide therapy to improve treatment of Parkinson's disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential effect of tolcapone on the pharmacokinetics of carbidopa. METHODS: This was an open-label study in 12 parkinsonian patients receiving optimal levodopa/carbidopa therapy and tolcapone 200 mg three times daily for 6 weeks. Blood samples were taken at baseline (i.e. before the first tolcapone intake) and after 1-2 weeks and 6 weeks so that carbidopa pharmacokinetics before and during tolcapone treatment could be assessed. RESULTS: No changes in any pharmacokinetic parameters of carbidopa were observed. The mean AUC(0,tau) and Cmax values at baseline were 0.39 microg ml-1 h and 0. 14 microg ml-1, respectively. During tolcapone treatment these values were on average 0.35 microg ml-1 h (AUC(0,tau), week 1-2), 0. 34 microg ml-1 h (AUC(0,tau), week 6 and 0.13 microg ml-1 (Cmax, weeks 1-2 and 6). tmax remained unchanged (approx. 2 h). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that tolcapone does not affect carbidopa elimination and that no interaction of any clinical relevance occurs between tolcapone and carbidopa. (+info)
Feeding behavior in dopamine-deficient mice.
Mice that cannot make dopamine (DA), a condition caused by the selective inactivation of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons, are born normal but gradually become hypoactive and hypophagic, and die at 3 weeks of age. We characterized the feeding and locomotor responses of these DA-deficient (DA-/-) mice to 3, 4-dihyroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) to investigate the relationship between brain DA levels and these complex behaviors. Daily administration of L-DOPA to DA-/- mice stimulated locomotor activity that lasted 6 to 9 hr; during that time the mice consumed most of their daily food and water. The minimal dose of L-DOPA that was sufficient to elicit normal feeding behavior in the DA-/- mice also restored their striatal DA to 9.1% of that in the wild-type (WT) mice at 3 hr; then DA content declined to <1% of WT levels by 24 hr. This dose of L-DOPA induced locomotor activity that exceeded that of treated WT mice by 5- to 7-fold, suggesting that DA-/- mice are supersensitive to DA. Unexpectedly, DA-/- mice manifested a second wave of activity 24 to 48 hr after L-DOPA treatment that was equivalent in magnitude to that of WT mice and independent of DA receptor activation. The DA-/- mice approached, sniffed, and chewed food during this second period of activity, but they ate <10% of that required for sustenance. Therefore, DA-/- mice can execute behaviors necessary to seek and ingest food, but they do not eat enough to survive. (+info)
Population pharmacokinetics of tolcapone in parkinsonian patients in dose finding studies.
AIMS: To use pharmacostatistical models to characterize tolcapone's pharmacokinetics in parkinsonian patients, and to identify any demographic subpopulations which may be at risk of either under- or over-exposure to this catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor. METHODS: Four hundred and twelve patients participated in three multicentre, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding studies and received either placebo or tolcapone (50, 200 or 400 mg three times daily) in addition to levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor therapy. Sparse blood samples were obtained from 275 patients for tolcapone assay and the concentrations (1414 in total) were analysed using the NONMEM program. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetic model which best described the data was a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption and possibly a lag-time. Tolcapone pharmacokinetics were shown to be stable, with no systematic trend between 2 and 6 weeks of treatment. The absorption of the drug was shown to be rapid and concomitant food intake had only a minor effect on the relative bioavailability (10-20% reduction compared with fasting). The overall clearance of tolcapone could be estimated with good precision (approximately 4. 5-5 l h-1 ), and none of the investigated covariates (e.g. sex, age, body weight) had any clinically significant influence on this parameter. The volume of distribution showed relatively high variability and was calculated to be approximately 30 l, leading to an estimated half-life in patients of approximately 5-8 h. CONCLUSIONS: Using sparse concentrations and mixed effect-effects modelling analysis it is possible to describe the pharmacokinetics of tolcapone in parkinsonian populations. The parameter estimates obtained agreed with those obtained from conventional pharmacokinetic studies and no subpopulation was shown to be at risk of either under- or over-exposure to tolcapone. (+info)
The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor entacapone enhances the pharmacokinetic and clinical response to Sinemet CR in Parkinson's disease.
OBJECTIVES: Entacapone is a specific, potent, peripherally acting catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor. It has been shown to improve the bioavailability of plasma levodopa and extend its clinical effect when used as an adjunct to standard levodopa preparations, but there is little experience of the effect of entacapone on controlled release levodopa preparations. METHODS: A double blind, placebo controlled, single dose, randomised, cross over trial was performed in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease with motor fluctuations to investigate the clinical effect of a single dose of entacapone (200 mg) when administered with either standard levodopa-carbidopa (Sinemet) or controlled release levodopa-carbidopa preparations (Sinemet CR). RESULTS: When entacapone was administered with standard Sinemet the duration of the clinical response to standard Sinemet was longer in comparison with the response after placebo (p=0.02). Moreover, in the same patients, entacapone significantly increased the duration of the clinical response to Sinemet CR (p=0.05) without prolonging the latency of response or enhancing dyskinesias. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm the clinical efficacy of entacapone-standard Sinemet combination. They also indicate that adding entacapone to controlled release levodopa preparations might provide a useful treatment option in patients with Parkinson's disease with motor fluctuations. A double blind clinical trial with a chronically administered entacapone-Sinemet CR combination is, however, required to verify this viewpoint. (+info)
Metoclopramide and pimozide in Parkinson's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesias.
Metoclopramide is an antiemetic drug which occasionally produced acute dystonic reactions. Although known to interfere with central dopamine mechanisms, it is frequently used in Parkinson's disease to prevent levodopa-induced nausea and vomiting. In this study metoclopramide did not increase Parkinsonism or reduce levodopa-induced involuntary movements in patients with Parkinson's disease. Pimozide, by contrast, increased Parkinsonism and reduced involuntary movements. The capacity of metoclopramide to produce acute dyskinesias while being apparently free of Parkinsonism effects is pharmacologically unique and differentiates this drug from the phenothiazines and butyrophenones. (+info)
The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells.
The carcinoid tumor is an uncommon neuroendocrine neoplasm the hallmark of which is excessive serotonin production. In studying kinetics of tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) in human carcinoid hepatic metastases and adjacent normal liver (J. A. Gilbert et al, Biochem. Pharmacol., 50: 845-850, 1995), we identified one significant difference: the Vmax of carcinoid AAAD was 50-fold higher than that in normal liver. Here, we report Western and Northern analyses detecting large quantities of AAAD polypeptide and mRNA in human carcinoid primary as well as metastatic tumors compared with normal surrounding tissues. To assess the feasibility of targeting these high AAAD levels for chemotherapy, AAAD inhibitors carbidopa (alpha-methyl-dopahydrazine), alpha-monofluoromethyldopa (MFMD), and 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015) were incubated (72 h) with NCI-H727 human lung carcinoid cells. Carbidopa and MFMD were lethal (IC50 = 29 +/- 2 microM and 56 +/- 6 microM, respectively); NSD-1015 had no effect on proliferation. On exposure to other human tumor lines, carbidopa was lethal only to NCI-H146 and NCI-H209 small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) lines (IC50 = 12 +/- 1 microM and 22 +/- 5 microM, respectively). Carbidopa (100 microM) decreased growth of (but did not kill) SK-N-SH neuroblastoma and A204 rhabdomyosarcoma cells and did not affect proliferation of DU 145 prostate, MCF7 breast, or NCI-H460 large cell lung carcinoma lines. The rank order of lines by AAAD activity was NCI-H146 > NCI-H209 > SK-N-SH > NCI-H727, whereas A204, DU 145, MCF7, and NCI-H460 had no measurable activity. For lung tumor lines (carcinoid, two SCLC, and one large cell lung carcinoma), AAAD activity was correlated with the potency of carbidopa-induced cytotoxicity. However, carcinoid cell death was not solely attributable to complete inhibition of either AAAD activity or the serotonin synthetic pathway. In further evaluating potential applications of these findings with carbidopa, we determined that sublethal doses of carbidopa produced additive cytotoxic effects in carcinoid cells in combination with etoposide and cytotoxic synergy in SCLC cells when coincubated with topotecan. (+info)
Parkinsonian symptoms as an initial manifestation in a Japanese patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Toxoplasma infection.
We studied a Japanese patient who developed parkinsonian symptoms over 3 months before the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Brain MRI showed multiple lesions with mass effect and ring enhancement in the basal ganglia and subcortical white matter suggesting Toxoplasma infection. Anti-Toxoplasma therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy for 6 months allowed improvement of parkinsonism, brain MRI findings, and immune system. (+info)