Contribution of cytochrome P450 epoxygenase and hydroxylase pathways to afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responsiveness.
Previous studies have demonstrated an important role for the cytochrome P450 (CYT-P450) pathway in afferent arteriole autoregulatory responses but the involvement of specific pathways remains unknown. Experiments were performed to determine the role of CYT-P450 epoxygenase and hydroxylase pathways in pressure mediated preglomerular autoregulatory responses. Afferent arteriolar diameter was measured as renal perfusion pressure was increased from 80-160 mmHg. Afferent arteriolar diameter averaged 19+/-2 microm at a renal perfusion pressure of 80 mmHg and decreased by 15+/-2% when pressure was increased to 160 mmHg. Inhibition of the epoxygenase pathway with 6-(2-proparglyloxyphenyl)hexanoic acid (PPOH), enhanced the microvascular response to increasing renal perfusion pressure. In the presence of 50 microM PPOH, afferent arteriolar diameter decreased by 29+/-4% when pressure was increased from 80-160 mmHg. Likewise, the sulphonimide derivative of PPOH, N-methylsulphonyl-6-(2-proparglyloxyphenyl) hexanamide (MS-PPOH, 50 microM), enhanced the afferent arteriolar response to increasing renal perfusion pressure. In contrast, the selective CYT-P450 hydroxylase inhibitor, N-methylsulphonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide (DDMS) attenuated the vascular response to increasing renal perfusion pressure. In the pressure of 25 microM DDMS, afferent arteriolar diameter decreased by 4+/-2% when pressure was increased from 80-160 mmHg. These results suggest that CYT-P450 metabolites of the epoxygenase pathway alter afferent arteriolar responsiveness and thereby modify the ability of the preglomerular vasculature to autoregulate renal blood flow. Additionally, these results provide further support to the concept that a metabolite of the hydroxylase pathway is an integral component of the afferent arteriolar response to elevations in perfusion pressure. (+info)
Novel biodegradable aromatic plastics from a bacterial source. Genetic and biochemical studies on a route of the phenylacetyl-coa catabolon.
Novel biodegradable bacterial plastics, made up of units of 3-hydroxy-n-phenylalkanoic acids, are accumulated intracellularly by Pseudomonas putida U due to the existence in this bacterium of (i) an acyl-CoA synthetase (encoded by the fadD gene) that activates the aryl-precursors; (ii) a beta-oxidation pathway that affords 3-OH-aryl-CoAs, and (iii) a polymerization-depolymerization system (encoded in the pha locus) integrated by two polymerases (PhaC1 and PhaC2) and a depolymerase (PhaZ). The complete assimilation of these compounds requires two additional routes that specifically catabolize the phenylacetyl-CoA or the benzoyl-CoA generated from these polyesters through beta-oxidation. Genetic studies have allowed the cloning, sequencing, and disruption of the genes included in the pha locus (phaC1, phaC2, and phaZ) as well as those related to the biosynthesis of precursors (fadD) or to the catabolism of their derivatives (acuA, fadA, and paa genes). Additional experiments showed that the blockade of either fadD or phaC1 hindered the synthesis and accumulation of plastic polymers. Disruption of phaC2 reduced the quantity of stored polymers by two-thirds. The blockade of phaZ hampered the mobilization of the polymer and decreased its production. Mutations in the paa genes, encoding the phenylacetic acid catabolic enzymes, did not affect the synthesis or catabolism of polymers containing either 3-hydroxyaliphatic acids or 3-hydroxy-n-phenylalkanoic acids with an odd number of carbon atoms as monomers, whereas the production of polyesters containing units of 3-hydroxy-n-phenylalkanoic acids with an even number of carbon atoms was greatly reduced in these bacteria. Yield-improving studies revealed that mutants defective in the glyoxylic acid cycle (isocitrate lyase(-)) or in the beta-oxidation pathway (fadA), stored a higher amount of plastic polymers (1.4- and 2-fold, respectively), suggesting that genetic manipulation of these pathways could be useful for isolating overproducer strains. The analysis of the organization and function of the pha locus and its relationship with the core of the phenylacetyl-CoA catabolon is reported and discussed. (+info)
Role of the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP1 in colon carcinogenesis.
Although the cyclooxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade has been suggested to play an important role in colon carcinogenesis, the molecular species of prostanoids and receptors involved have not been fully elucidated yet. We examined the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACFs), putative preneoplastic lesions of the colon, in two lines of knockout mice, each deficient in prostaglandin E receptors, EP1 and EP3, by treatment with the colon carcinogen, azoxymethane. Formation of ACFs was decreased only in the EP1-knockout mice to approximately 60% of the level in wild-type mice. Administration of 250, 500, or 1000 ppm of a novel selective EP1 antagonist, ONO-8711, in the diet to azoxymethane-treated C57BL/6J mice also resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of ACF formation. Moreover, when Min mice, having a nonsense mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene, were given 500 ppm ONO-8711 in the diet, the number of intestinal polyps was significantly reduced to 57% of that in the basal diet group. These results strongly suggest that prostaglandin E2 contributes to colon carcinogenesis to some extent through its action at the EP1 receptor. Thus, EP1 antagonists may be good candidates as chemopreventive agents for colon cancer. (+info)
Product of side-chain cleavage of cholesterol, isocaproaldehyde, is an endogenous specific substrate of mouse vas deferens protein, an aldose reductase-like protein in adrenocortical cells.
Mouse vas deferens protein (MVDP) is an aldose reductase-like protein that is highly expressed in the vas deferens and adrenal glands and whose physiological functions were unknown. We hereby describe the enzymatic characteristics of MVDP and its role in murine adrenocortical Y1 cells. The murine aldose reductase (AR) and MVDP cDNAs were expressed in bacteria to obtain recombinant proteins and to compare their enzymatic activities. Recombinant MVDP was functional and displayed kinetic properties distinct from those of murine AR toward various substrates, a preference for NADH, and insensitivity to AR inhibitors. For MVDP, isocaproaldehyde, a product of side-chain cleavage of cholesterol generated during steroidogenesis, is the best natural substrate identified so far. In Y1 cells, we found that NADH-linked isocaproaldehyde reductase (ICR) activity was much higher than NADPH-linked ICR activity and was not abolished by AR inhibitors. We demonstrate that in Y1 cells, forskolin-induced MVDP expression enhanced NADH-linked ICR activity by 5-6-fold, whereas no variation in ICR-linked NADPH activity was observed in the same experiment. In cells stably transfected with MVDP antisense cDNA, NADH-linked ICR activity was abolished even in the presence of forskolin, and the isocaproaldehyde toxicity was increased compared with that of intact Y1 cells, as measured by isocaproaldehyde LD(50). In Y1 cells transfected with MVDP antisense cDNA, forskolin-induced toxicity was abolished by aminoglutethimide. These results indicate that in adrenocortical cells, MVDP is responsible for detoxifying isocaproaldehyde generated by steroidogenesis. (+info)
'Microsmatic' primates revisited: olfactory sensitivity in the squirrel monkey.
Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of three squirrel monkeys to nine odorants representing different chemical classes as well as members of a homologous series of substances was investigated. The animals significantly discriminated dilutions as low as 1:10,000 n-propionic acid, 1:30,000 n-butanoic acid and n-pentanoic acid, 1:100,000 n-hexanoic acid, 1:1Mio n-heptanoic acid, 1:30, 000 1-pentanol, 1:300,000 1,8-cineole, 1:1Mio n-heptanal and 1:30Mio amyl acetate from the near-odorless solvent, with single individuals scoring even slightly better. The results showed (i) the squirrel monkey to have an unexpectedly high olfactory sensitivity, which for some substances matches or even is better than that of species such as the rat or the dog, and (ii) a significant negative correlation between perceptibility in terms of olfactory detection thresholds and carbon chain length of carboxylic acids. These findings support the assumptions that olfaction may play a significant and hitherto underestimated role in the regulation of primate behavior, and that the concept of primates as primarily visual and 'microsmatic' animals needs to be revised. (+info)
Tricaproin, tricaprin and trilaurin are utilized more efficiently than tricaprylin by carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae.
We investigated the effect of chain length of dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on growth performance and fatty acid composition of first-feeding carp larvae. In a first trial, five semi-purified isolipidic (23-24 g/100 g of dry matter) diets were formulated to contain either 10 g/100 g triolein (control diet) or 5 g/100 g triolein and 5 g/100 g medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) supplied as tricaproin, tricaprylin, tricaprin or trilaurin. After 21 d, survival and growth rates were significantly greater in larvae fed diets containing triolein, tricaproin, tricaprin and trilaurin (final survival: 92 +/- 7% and mean larval weight: 42 +/- 15 mg) than in larvae fed tricaprylin (final survival: 56 +/- 12% and mean larval weight: 15 +/- 1 mg). The recovered levels of the fed MCFA in larval total lipids were respectively 0, 1.3, 7.3 and 8.1 g/100 g of total fatty acids. In a second trial, two isolipidic (18 g/100 g) diets containing 10 g/100 g triolein or tricaprylin were tested. High amounts of capric acid (up to 25 g/100 g of total fatty acids) were found in neutral lipids of carp larvae fed tricaprylin for 11 d, suggesting an unusual elongation of caprylic acid. This study underlines the peculiarity of tricaprylin among other MCT which seem well utilized up to 20-30 g/100 g of total dietary fatty acids. The exception of tricaprylin raises the question of the metabolic pathways followed by this MCT, especially for the suggested direct elongation of caprylic acid into capric acid. (+info)
Kinetic and stereochemical studies on novel inactivators of C-terminal amidation.
C-terminal amidation, a required post-translational modification for the bioactivation of many neuropeptides, entails sequential enzymic action by peptidylglycine alpha-mono-oxygenase (PAM, EC 126.96.36.199) and peptidylamidoglycolate lyase (PGL, EC 188.8.131.52). Here we introduce novel compounds in which an olefinic functionality is incorporated into peptide analogues as the most potent turnover-dependent inactivators of PAM. Kinetic parameters for PAM inactivation by 4-oxo-5-acetamido-6-phenyl-hex-2-enoic acid and 4-oxo-5-acetamido-6-(2-thienyl)-hex-2-enoic acid were obtained by using both the conventional dilution assay method and the more complex progress curve method. The results obtained from the progress curve method establish that these compounds exhibit the kinetic characteristics of pure competitive inactivators (i.e. no ESI complex forms during inactivation). On the basis of k(inact)/K(i) values, 4-oxo-5-acetamido-6-(2-thienyl)-hex-2-enoic acid is almost two orders of magnitude more potent than benzoylacrylate, a chemically analogous olefinic inactivator that lacks the peptide moiety. Stereochemical studies established that PAM inactivation by 4-oxo-5-acetamido-6-(2-thienyl)-hex-2-enoic acid is stereospecific with respect to the moiety at the P(2) position, which is consistent with previous results with substrates and reversible inhibitors. In contrast, 2, 4-dioxo-5-acetamido-6-phenylhexanoic acid, which is a competitive inhibitor with respect to ascorbate, exhibits a low degree of stereospecificity in binding to the ascorbate sites of both PAM and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. (+info)
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is modified by P-450 metabolites.
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cytochrome P-450 4A (CYP4A) metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA) in human and rabbit lung microsomes and is a dilator of isolated human pulmonary arteries (PA). However, little is known regarding the contribution of P-450 metabolites to pulmonary vascular tone. We examined 1) the effect of two mechanistically distinct omega- and omega1-hydroxylase inhibitors on perfusion pressures in isolated rabbit lungs ventilated with normoxic or hypoxic gases, 2) changes in rabbit PA ring tone elicited by 20-HETE or omega- and omega1-hydroxylase inhibitors, and 3) expression of CYP4A protein in lung tissue. A modest increase in perfusion pressure (55 +/- 11% above normoxic conditions) was observed in isolated perfused lungs during ventilation with hypoxic gas (FI(O(2)) = 0.05). Inhibitors of 20-HETE synthesis, 17-oxydecanoic acid (17-ODYA) or N-methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide (DDMS), increased baseline perfusion pressure above that of vehicle and amplified hypoxia-induced increases in perfusion pressures by 92 +/- 11% and 105 +/- 11% over baseline pressures, respectively. 20-HETE relaxed phenylephrine (PE)-constricted PA rings. Treatment with 17-ODYA enhanced PE-induced contraction of PA rings, consistent with inhibition of a product that promotes arterial relaxation, whereas 6-(20-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanoic acid (PPOH), an epoxygenase inhibitor, blunted contraction to PE. Conversion of AA into 20-HETE was blocked by 17-ODYA, DDMS, and hypoxia. CYP4A immunospecific protein confirms expression of CYP4A in male rabbit lung tissue. Our data suggest that endogenously produced 20-HETE could modify rabbit pulmonary vascular tone, particularly under hypoxic conditions. (+info)