Comparison of four methods for assessing airway sealing pressure with the laryngeal mask airway in adult patients.
We have compared four tests for assessing airway sealing pressure with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) to test the hypothesis that airway sealing pressure and inter-observer reliability differ between tests. We studied 80 paralysed, anaesthetized adult patients. Four different airway sealing pressure tests were performed in random order on each patient by two observers blinded to each other's measurements: test 1 involved detection of an audible noise; test 2 was detection of end-tidal carbon dioxide in the oral cavity; test 3 was observation of the aneroid manometer dial as the pressure increased to note the airway pressure at which the dial reached stability; and test 4 was detection of an audible noise by neck auscultation. Mean airway sealing pressure ranged from 19.5 to 21.3 cm H2O and intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.95-0.99. Inter-observer reliability of all tests was classed as excellent. The manometric stability test had a higher mean airway sealing pressure (P < 0.0001) and better inter-observer reliability (P < 0.0001) compared with the three other tests. We conclude that for clinical purposes all four tests are excellent, but that the manometric stability test may be more appropriate for researchers comparing airway sealing pressures. (+info
Volumetric capnography in patients with acute lung injury: effects of positive end-expiratory pressure.
The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on volumetric capnography and respiratory system mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients. Eight normal subjects (control group), nine patients with moderate acute lung injury (ALI group) and eight patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS group) were studied. Respiratory system mechanics, alveolar ejection volume as a fraction of tidal volume (VAE/VT), phase III slopes of expired CO2 beyond VAE and Bohr's dead space (VD/VT(Bohr)) at different levels of PEEP were measured. No differences in respiratory system resistances were found between the ALI and ARDS groups. VD/VT(Bohr) and expired CO2 slope beyond VAE were higher in ALI patients (0.52+/-0.01 and 13.9+/-0.7 mmHg x L(-1), respectively) compared with control patients (0.46+/-0.01 and 7.7+/-0.4 mmHg x L(-1), p<0.01, respectively) and in ARDS patients (0.61+/-0.02 and 24.9+/-1.6 mmHg x L(-1), p<0.01, respectively) compared with ALI patients. VAE/VT differed similarly (0.6+/-0.01 in control group, 0.43+/-0.01 in ALI group and 0.31+/-0.01 in ARDS group, p<0.01). PEEP had no effect on VAE/VT, expired CO2 slope beyond VAE and VD/VT(Bohr) in any group. A significant correlation (p<0.01) was found between VAE/VT and expired CO2 slope beyond VAE and lung injury score at zero PEEP. Indices of volumetric capnography are affected by the severity of the lung injury, but are unmodified by the application of positive end-expiratory pressure. (+info
Oxygenator exhaust capnography as an index of arterial carbon dioxide tension during cardiopulmonary bypass using a membrane oxygenator.
We have studied the relationship between the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in oxygenator exhaust gas (PECO2) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with non-pulsatile flow and a membrane oxygenator. A total of 172 paired measurements were made in 32 patients, 5 min after starting cardiopulmonary bypass and then at 15-min intervals. Additional measurements were made at 34 degrees C during rewarming. The degree of agreement between paired measurements (PaCO2 and PECO2) at each time was calculated. Mean difference (d) was 0.9 kPa (SD 0.99 kPa). Results were analysed further during stable hypothermia (n = 30, d = 1.88, SD = 0.69), rewarming at 34 degrees C (n = 22, d = 0, SD = 0.84), rewarming at normothermia (n = 48, d = 0.15, SD = 0.69) and with (n = 78, d = 0.62, SD = 0.99) or without (n = 91, d = 1.07, SD = 0.9) carbon dioxide being added to the oxygenator gas. The difference between the two measurements varied in relation to nasopharyngeal temperature if PaCO2 was not corrected for temperature (r2 = 0.343, P = < 0.001). However, if PaCO2 was corrected for temperature, the difference between PaCO2 and PECO2 was not related to temperature, and there was no relationship with either pump blood flow or oxygenator gas flow. We found that measurement of carbon dioxide partial pressure in exhaust gases from a membrane oxygenator during cardiopulmonary bypass was not a useful method for estimating PaCO2. (+info
In vitro and in vivo assessment of the Ventrak 1550/Capnogard 1265 for single breath carbon dioxide analysis in neonates.
The Ventrak 1550/Capnogard 1265 (V&C) enables deadspace (VD) measurements to be made in neonates. The aim of our studies was to validate the V&C device for VD measurement in vitro (lung model) and in vivo (adult rabbits). Methods of measurement of VD using the V&C (automatic computation, interactive carbon dioxide-volume plot analysis, Bohr equation) were tested by comparing known added deadspace volumes (VDadd) with calculated VDadd. After producing a change in alveolar (VDalv) and physiological (VDphys) deadspace by in vivo broncho-alveolar lavage, VDalv and VDphys computed automatically were compared with values calculated by the Bohr-Enghoff equations. VDadd was slightly underestimated (absolute error in mean: automatically -0.61 ml; interactively -0.55 ml; Bohr -0.54 ml). The higher the VDadd, the lower the absolute errors and coefficients of variation (cv). The highest cv occurred for automatic analysis (approximately 11%) compared with < 6% for interactive analysis or the Bohr equation. Average differences between results calculated automatically and by the Bohr-Enghoff equation were -0.79 ml for VDalv (95% confidence interval -2.02 to 0.44 ml) and -0.23 ml for VDphys (-0.6 to 0.14 ml). We conclude that the V&C can be used in newborn infants undergoing mechanical ventilation, if changes in VD are < 5 ml, interactive analysis or the Bohr equation should be used. (+info
Measurement of carbon dioxide production in very low birth weight babies.
BACKGROUND: CO2 production is most commonly measured by using indirect calorimetry to quantify elimination of CO(2) in breath (VCO2). An alternative is to measure the rate at which CO2 appears in the body pool (RaCO2) by infusing a (13)C labelled bicarbonate tracer. VCO2 and RaCO2 generally differ but are related by c, a factor that adjusts for the incomplete recovery of infused tracer in the breath. The literature relating to human studies cites a wide range of values for c but the only neonatal study to determine c empirically estimated a mean value of 0.77. AIM: To estimate fractional recovery rate, c, in very low birthweight babies, and assess the feasibility of using the isotopic technique to measure CO2 production during mechanical ventilation. METHOD: Eleven spontaneously breathing, continuously fed, very low birthweight infants (median birth weight 1060 g, median gestational age 29 weeks) were studied. RESULTS: Mean (SD) VCO2 was 9.0 (2.0) ml/min (standard temperature and pressure dry, STPD) and mean (SD) RaCO2 was 9.6 (2.1) ml/min (STPD). The mean (SD) value of c was estimated as 0.95 (0.13). The 95% confidence intervals of the mean were 0.87-1.03. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasise the importance of measuring c for a given study population rather than assuming a value based on adult studies. The close approximation of RaCO2 and VCO2 in this group of babies implies that the labelled bicarbonate infusion technique could be used to measure simply CO2 production during mechanical ventilation. (+info
Breath interval as a measure of dynamic opioid effect.
We measured breath interval to characterize the time course of opioid effect in anaesthetized patients breathing spontaneously during knee replacement surgery with concurrent regional nerve blockade. Breath interval was recorded before and after a single dose of fentanyl 0.75 microgram kg-1 i.v. Breath interval was measured between the start of successive inspirations, identified by a decrease in carbon dioxide concentration, sampled at the laryngeal mask connection. Nineteen patients were admitted to the study, of whom nine were withdrawn (there was a recording failure for one patient, five patients had inadequate block and three were excessively depressed by the fentanyl). Using MKMODEL software, the mean (SD) dynamic elimination half-life and dynamic mean brain residence time of fentanyl were 15.3 (7.8) and 24.1 (8.1) min, respectively. The times to detection of change from baseline, and peak effect of fentanyl on breath interval were 0.9 (0.6) and 5.2 (1.4) min, respectively. Breath interval increased from 2.9 (1.0) s to a maximum of 9.0 (5.7) s. There were no differences between the time course of changes in breath interval and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentrations. End-tidal carbon dioxide concentrations increased from a baseline of 6.6 (0.9)% to a peak of 8.2 (0.8)%. Breath interval was a useful and reproducible method of monitoring the duration of opioid effect in anaesthetized patients breathing spontaneously when surgical stimulation was not affecting the CNS. The data provide information on the duration of action of fentanyl and could guide dosage. (+info
Arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure difference during laparoscopic surgery in pregnancy.
BACKGROUND: There is controversy about whether capnography is adequate to monitor pulmonary ventilation to reduce the risk of significant respiratory acidosis in pregnant patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. In this prospective study, changes in arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure difference (PaCO2--PetCO2), induced by carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum, were determined in pregnant patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Eight pregnant women underwent general anesthesia at 17-30 weeks of gestation. Carbon dioxide pnueumoperitoneum was initiated after obtaining arterial blood for gas analysis. Pulmonary ventilation was adjusted to maintain PetCO2 around 32 mmHg during the procedure. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed during insufflation, after the termination of insufflation, after extubation, and in the postoperative period. RESULTS: The mean +/- SD for PaCO2--PetCO2 was 2.4 +/- 1.5 before carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum, 2.6 +/- 1.2 during, and 1.9 +/- 1.4 mmHg after termination of pneumoperitoneum. PaCO2 and pH during pneumoperitoneum were 35 +/- 1.7 mmHg and 7.41 +/- 0.02, respectively. There were no significant differences in either mean PaCO2--PetCO2 or PaCO2 and pH during various phases of laparoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Capnography is adequate to guide ventilation during laparoscopic surgery in pregnant patients. Respiratory acidosis did not occur when PetCO2 was maintained at 32 mmHg during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum. (+info
Non-invasive respiratory monitoring in paediatric intensive care unit.
Monitoring respiratory function is important in a Paediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU), as majority of patients have cardio-respiratory problems. Non-invasive monitoring is convenient, accurate, and has minimal complications. Along with clinical monitoring, oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry, transcutaneous oxygenation (PtcO2) and transcutaneous PCO2 (PtcCO2) using transcutaneous monitors and end-tidal CO2 using capnography are important and routine measurements done in most PICUs. Considering the financial and maintenance constraints pulse oximetry with end tidal CO2 monitoring can be considered as most feasible. (+info