Fulminant infection by uncommon organisms in animal bite wounds.
In 1995 and 1996, 215 patients exposed to different species of animals were treated at the Amarnath Polyclinic, Balasore, in India. Among them were two children infected by uncommon organisms, i.e., Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida; the patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy. (+info)
Coenonia anatina gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel bacterium associated with respiratory disease in ducks and geese.
Taxon 1502 was originally described as a Riemerella anatipestifer-like bacterium causing exudative septicaemia in ducks and geese. In the present study, an integrated genotypic and phenotypic approach was used to elucidate the phylogenetic affiliation and taxonomic relationships of 12 strains of taxon 1502. Whole-cell protein and fatty acid analyses and an extensive biochemical examination by using conventional tests and several API microtest systems indicated that all isolates formed a homogeneous taxon, which was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridizations. 16S rDNA sequence analysis of a representative strain (LMG 14382T) indicated that this taxon belongs to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum and revealed a moderate but distinct relationship to species of the genus Capnocytophaga (overall 16S rDNA sequence identities were 88.8-90.2%). Taxon 1502 is concluded to represent a single species that should be allocated to a novel genus, and the name Coenonia anatina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G + C content of representative strains was 35-36 mol% and the type strain is LMG 14382T. (+info)
Capnocytophaga ochracea: characterization of a plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum TEM-17 beta-lactamase in the phylum Flavobacter-bacteroides.
A plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum TEM beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.5 was detected in a Capnocytophaga ochracea clinical isolate. The bla gene was associated with a strong TEM-2 promoter and was derived from bla(TEM-1a) with a single-amino-acid substitution: Glu(104)-->Lys, previously assigned to TEM-17, which is thus the first TEM beta-lactamase to be reported in the phylum Flavobacter-Bacteroides. (+info)
In vitro susceptibilities of Capnocytophaga isolates to beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors.
The susceptibilities of 43 pharyngeal isolates of Capnocytophaga to beta-lactam antibiotics, alone or in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors, were tested by an agar dilution method. The 34 beta-lactamase-positive strains were highly resistant to beta-lactams, but the intrinsic activities of clavulanate, tazobactam, and sulbactam against Capnocytophaga, even beta-lactamase producers, indicates that these beta-lactamase inhibitors could be used for empirical treatment of neutropenic patients with oral sources of infection. (+info)
Capnocytophaga cynodegmi cellulitis, bacteremia, and pneumonitis in a diabetic man.
Capnocytophaga cynodegmi (formerly "DF-2 like organism"), a commensal organism of the canine oral cavity, is a capnophilic, gram-negative, facultative bacillus. C. cynodegmi has rarely been encountered in human diseases. We report the first known case of cellulitis, bacteremia, and pneumonitis caused by C. cynodegmi in a diabetic man from central India following a dog bite. (+info)
C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links (ICTP) and periodontal pathogens associated with endosseous oral implants.
Detection of periodontal or peri-implant sites exhibiting progressing disease or those at risk of deterioration has proven difficult. Pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), a marker specific for bone degradation found in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), has been associated with both bone and attachment loss in periodontitis and may be useful for predicting disease activity. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between ICTP levels and subgingival species around implants and teeth from 20 partially and 2 fully edentulous patients. GCF and plaque samples were collected from the mesiobuccal site of each implant and tooth. Radioimmunoassay techniques were utilized to determine GCF ICTP levels. Plaque samples were analyzed utilizing checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Traditional clinical parameters were assessed. Seventy-one implants and 370 teeth from 22 subjects were examined. ICTP levels and subgingival plaque composition were not significantly different between implants and teeth. Implant sites colonized by Prevotella intermedia, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss vincentii, and Streptococcus gordonii exhibited odds ratios of 12.4, 9.3, 8.1, and 6.7, respectively of detecting ICTP. These results suggest a relationship between elevated ICTP levels at implant sites and some species associated with disease progression. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine whether elevated ICTP levels may predict the development of peri-implant bone loss. (+info)
Bacteremia caused by Capnocytophaga species in patients with neutropenia and cancer: results of a multicenter study.
We investigated 28 cases of bacteremia caused by Capnocytophaga species that occurred during an 8-year period, most of which were in patients with hematologic malignancy and neutropenia. Infections were uncomplicated, without serious organ involvement and without any apparent source except ulcerations of the oropharyngeal mucosa, and only 1 isolate showed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics; 9 of 16 isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. (+info)
Lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis and Capnocytophaga ochracea are antagonists for human toll-like receptor 4.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 have recently been identified as possible signal transducers for various bacterial ligands. To investigate the roles of TLRs in the recognition of periodontopathic bacteria by the innate immune system, a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent reporter cell line, 7.7, which is defective in both TLR2- and TLR4-dependent signaling pathways was transfected with human CD14 and TLRs. When the transfectants were exposed to freeze-dried periodontopathic bacteria, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, and Fusobacterium nucleatum, and a non-oral bacterium, Escherichia coli, all species of the bacteria induced NF-kappaB-dependent CD25 expression in 7.7/huTLR2 cells. Although freeze-dried A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum, and E. coli also induced CD25 expression in 7.7/huTLR4 cells, freeze-dried P. gingivalis did not. Similarly, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum, and E. coli induced CD25 expression in 7.7/huTLR4 cells, but LPS from P. gingivalis and C. ochracea did not. Furthermore, LPS from P. gingivalis and C. ochracea attenuated CD25 expression in 7.7/huTLR4 cells induced by repurified LPS from E. coli. LPS from P. gingivalis and C. ochracea also inhibited the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) from U373 cells, the secretion of IL-1beta from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and ICAM-1 expression in human gingival fibroblasts induced by repurified LPS from E. coli. These findings indicated that LPS from P. gingivalis and C. ochracea worked as antagonists for human TLR4. The antagonistic activity of LPS from these periodontopathic bacteria may be associated with the etiology of periodontal diseases. (+info)