Potent mast cell degranulation and vascular permeability triggered by urocortin through activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors.
Urocortin (Ucn) is related to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and both are released in the brain under stress where they stimulate CRH 1 and 2 receptors (CRHR). Outside the brain, they may have proinflammatory actions through activation of mast cells, which are located perivascularly close to nerve endings and degranulate in response to acute psychological stress. Here, we report that a concentration of intradermal Ucn as low as 10 nM induced dose-dependent rat skin mast cell degranulation and increased vascular permeability. This effect appeared to be equipotent to that of calcitonin gene-related peptide and neurotensin. Ucn-induced skin vasodilation was inhibited by pretreatment with the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) and was absent in the mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice. The selective nonpeptide CRH receptor 1 antagonist, antalarmin and the nonselective peptide antagonist astressin both reduced vascular permeability triggered by Ucn but not that by Substance P or histamine. In contrast, the peptide antagonist alpha-helical CRH-(9-41) reduced the effect of all three. The vasodilatory effect of Ucn was largely inhibited by pretreatment with H1 receptor antagonists, suggesting that histamine is the major mediator involved in vitro. Neuropeptide depletion of sensory neurons, treatment with the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, or in situ skin infiltration with the local anesthetic lidocaine did not affect Ucn-induced vascular permeability, indicating that its in situ effect was not mediated through the peripheral nervous system. These results indicate that Ucn is one of the most potent triggers of rat mast cell degranulation and skin vascular permeability. This effect of Ucn may explain stress-induced disorders, such as atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, and may lead to new forms of treatment. (+info)
Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists.
1. Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws. 2. Up to 100 microg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method. 3. Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. 4. Treatment with aprotinin to inhibit tissue kallikrein reduced the scratching behaviour induced by sodium deoxycholic acid, whereas treatment with soybean trypsin inhibitor to inhibit plasma kallikrein did not. 5. Although injection of kininase II inhibitor, lisinopril together with sodium deoxycholic acid did not alter the scratching behaviour, phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, significantly increased the frequency of scratching. 6. Homogenates of the skin excised from the backs of mice were subjected to gel-filtration column chromatography followed by an assay of kinin release by trypsin from each fraction separated. Less kinin release from the fractions containing kininogen of low molecular weight was observed in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than in normal skin. 7. The frequency of scratching after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in plasma kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats of the same strain, Brown Norway Kitasato rats. 8. These results indicate that BK released from low-molecular-weight kininogen by tissue kallikrein, but not from high-molecular-weight kininogen by plasma kallikrein, may be involved in the scratching behaviour induced by the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in the rodent. (+info)
Role for nitric oxide in the hyperpermeability and hemodynamic changes induced by intravenous VEGF.
PURPOSE: To explore the effects of brief intravenous (IV) infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on vascular albumin permeability, blood flow, and vascular conductance (blood flow normalized to arterial blood pressure) in ocular tissues and brain and to assess the role of nitric oxide in mediating these changes. METHODS: A quantitative, double-tracer, radiolabeled albumin permeation method was combined with radiolabeled microspheres for assessment of changes in vascular permeability and blood flow, respectively, induced in ocular tissues by IV infusion of recombinant human VEGF165 for 20 minutes (80-450 picomoles/kg body weight). An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 50 micromoles/kg body weight infused simultaneously with VEGF), was used to explore the role of nitric oxide in mediating the vascular changes induced by VEGF. RESULTS: Infusion of VEGF165 in thiopental-anesthetized rats dose-dependently increased 125I albumin permeation in the retina, anterior uvea, and choroid/sclera and in brain, aorta, lung, kidney, small intestine, and peripheral nerve. Mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and stroke volume were decreased only at the highest dose of VEGF, whereas heart rate remained unchanged. Blood flow was increased in the anterior uvea, and vascular conductance was increased in retina, anterior uvea, choroid/sclera, and brain at the highest dose of VEGF. The NOS inhibitor, L-NMMA, blocked VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability in all ocular and nonocular tissues, prevented the increase in vascular conductance in all ocular tissues, and blocked the decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and stroke volume. Infusion of L-NMMA alone decreased vascular conductance in choroid/sclera and kidney, slightly increased mean arterial blood pressure, and in general, did not affect 125I-albumin permeation. (L-NMMA slightly decreased albumin permeation in the retina and increased it in the brain.) CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous infusion of VEGF can acutely impair endothelial cell barrier functional integrity and relax resistance arterioles in ocular tissues and brain through a mechanism involving activation of NOS. (+info)
Strain-dependent induction of allergic sensitization caused by peanut allergen DNA immunization in mice.
To investigate the potential application of allergen gene immunization in the modulation of food allergy, C3H/HeSn (C3H) mice received i.m. injections of pAra h2 plasmid DNA encoding one of the major peanut allergens, Ara h2. Three weeks following pDNA immunization, serum Ara h2-specific IgG2a, IgG1, but not IgE, were increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. IgG1 was 30-fold higher in multiply compared with singly immunized mice. Ara h2 or peanut protein injection of immunized mice induced anaphylactic reactions, which were more severe in multiply immunized mice. Heat-inactivated immune serum induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, suggesting that anaphylaxis in C3H mice was mediated by IgG1. IgG1 responses were also induced by intradermal injection of pAra h2, and by i.m. injection of pOMC, the plasmid DNA encoding the major egg allergen protein, ovomucoid. To elucidate whether the pDNA immunization-induced anaphylaxis was a strain-dependent phenomenon, AKR/J and BALB/c mice also received multiple i.m. pAra h2 immunizations. Injection of peanut protein into these strains at weeks 3 or 5 following immunization did not induce reactions. Although IgG2a was increased significantly from week 2 in AKR/J mice and from week 4 in BALB/c mice and remained elevated for at least 6 wk, no IgG1 or IgE was detected. These results indicate that the type of immune responses to pDNA immunization in mice is strain dependent. Consequently, models for studying human allergen gene immunization require careful selection of suitable strains. In addition, this suggests that similar interindividual variation is likely in humans. (+info)
Antipsoriatic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of an extract of red propolis.
AIM: To study the antipsoriatic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of red propolis. METHODS AND RESULTS: This extract induced the formation of granular layer in the mouse tail test used as a model of psoriasis. Propolis 50 mg.kg-1 i.g. showed anti-inflammatory activity in the cotton-pellet granuloma assay in rats, in croton oil-induced edema in mice at a dose of 25% (2.5 microL), and in the peritoneal capillary permeability test in mice at a dose of 10 mg.kg-1. The extract (25 mg.kg-1 i.g.) showed analgesic effect in the model of acetic acid-induced writhings, whereas 40 mg.kg-1 was effective in the hot plate test in mice. CONCLUSION: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipsoriatric properties of Cuban red propolis were evident. (+info)
Endogenous nitric oxide in the maintenance of rat microvascular integrity against widespread plasma leakage following abdominal laparotomy.
1. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the maintenance of microvascular integrity during minor surgical manipulation has been evaluated in the rat. 2. The NO synthase inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 50 mg kg(-1), s.c.) had no effect on microvascular leakage of radiolabelled albumin over 1 h in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon, lung and kidney in the un-operated conscious or pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rat. 3. In contrast, in anaesthetized rats with a midline abdominal laparotomy (5 cm), L-NAME (1-5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) or L-NMMA (12.5-50 mg kg(-1), s.c.) dose-dependently increased gastrointestinal, renal and pulmonary vascular leakage, effects reversed by L-arginine pretreatment (300 mg kg(-1), s.c., 15 min). These actions were not observed in anaesthetized rats that had only received a midline abdominal skin incision (5 cm). 4. Pretreatment with a rabbit anti-rat neutrophil serum (0.4 ml kg(-1), i.p.), 4 h before laparotomy, abolished the plasma leakage induced by L-NAME in all the organs investigated. 5. These results indicate that the following abdominal laparotomy, inhibition of constitutive NO synthase provokes vascular leakage in the general microcirculation, by a process that may involve neutrophils. Such effects could thus confound studies on the microvascular actions of NO synthase inhibitors using acute surgically prepared in vivo models. The findings thus suggest that constitutively-formed NO has a crucial role in the maintenance of acute microvascular integrity following abdominal surgical intervention. (+info)
Neurogenic plasma leakage in mouse airways.
1. This study sought to determine whether neurogenic inflammation occurs in the airways by examining the effects of capsaicin or substance P on microvascular plasma leakage in the trachea and lungs of male pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice. 2. Single bolus intravenous injections of capsaicin (0.5 and 1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) or substance P (1, 10 and 37 nmol kg(-10, i.v.) failed to induce significant leakage in the trachea, assessed as extravasation of Evans blue dye, but did induce leakage in the urinary bladder and skin. 3. Pretreatment with captopril (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), either alone or in combination with phosphoramidon (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), increased baseline leakage of Evans blue in the absence of any exogenous inflammatory mediator. The increase was reversed by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 4. After pretreatment with phosphoramidon and captopril, capsaicin increased the Evans blue leakage above the baseline in the trachea, but not in the lung. This increase was reversed by the tachykinin (NK1) receptor antagonist SR 140333 (0.7 mg kg(-1), i.v.), but not by the NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 5. Experiments using Monastral blue pigment as a tracer localized the leakage to postcapillary venules in the trachea and intrapulmonary bronchi, although the labelled vessels were less numerous in mice than in comparably treated rats. Blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation were not labelled. 6. We conclude that neurogenic inflammation can occur in airways of pathogen-free mice, but only after the inhibition of enzymes that normally degrade inflammatory peptides. Neurogenic inflammation does not involve the pulmonary microvasculature. (+info)
Enhancement of fluid filtration across tumor vessels: implication for delivery of macromolecules.
Cancer therapies using genes and other macromolecules might realize their full clinical potential if they could be delivered to tumor tissue in optimal quantities. Unfortunately, the compromised circulation within tumors poses a formidable resistance to adequate and uniform penetration of these agents. Previously, we have proposed elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) as a major physiological barrier to delivery of macromolecules. Here we postulate that modulation of tumor microvascular pressure (MVP) and associated changes in IFP would enhance macromolecular delivery into a solid tumor. To test our hypothesis, we altered tumor MVP by either periodic injection or continuous infusion of angiotensin II (AII) and measured the resulting changes in IFP and uptake of macromolecules. We used the nicotinyl hydrazine derivative of human polyclonal IgG (HYNIC-IgG) as a nonspecific macromolecule and CC49 antibody as a specific macromolecule. We found that both chronic and periodic modulation of tumor MVP enhances transvascular fluid filtration, leading to a 40% increase in total uptake of the specific antibody within 4 hr of its administration. Conversely, neither continuous nor periodic infusion of AII induced any increase in uptake of nonspecific antibodies. Strategies to improve delivery of macromolecules and limitations of this approach are identified. (+info)