Open-label crossover study to determine pharmacokinetics and penetration of two dose regimens of levofloxacin into inflammatory fluid.
(73/89)Two levofloxacin administration regimens were used for six healthy male volunteers. They received either 500 mg of levofloxacin orally every 12 h for five doses or 500 mg every 24 h for three doses, and then 6 weeks later they received the other course. The concentrations of the drug in plasma, cantharidin-induced inflammatory fluid, and urine were measured with a microbiological assay following administration of the final dose. Mean peak concentrations in plasma of 9.3 and 6.6 micrograms/ml were attained 1.1 and 1.2 h after the 12- and 24-h regimens, respectively. Mean peak concentrations is inflammatory fluid of 6.8 and 4.3 micrograms/ml were attained at 2.3 and 3.7 h, respectively. The average steady-state concentrations were 5.0 and 2.2 micrograms/ml in plasma and 4.7 and 2.3 micrograms/ml in inflammatory fluid, respectively. The mean terminal elimination half-lives for plasma were 7.9 and 8.0 h for the two regimens, respectively, and the same values were noted for inflammatory fluid. The overall penetration into inflammatory fluid ranged from 88 to 101% with the 12-h regimen and 83 to 112% with the 24-h regimen. Mean urinary recoveries were 87 and 86% over the corresponding interval of the 12- and 24-h regimens, respectively. These results suggest that administration of levofloxacin once and twice daily should be efficacious for infections caused by the majority of pathogens. (+info)
The involvement of protein phosphatases in the activation of ICE/CED-3 protease, intracellular acidification, DNA digestion, and apoptosis.
(74/89)Many events in apoptosis have been identified but their temporal relationships remain obscure. Apoptosis in human ML-1 cells induced by etoposide is characterized by intracellular acidification, enhanced Hoechst 33342 fluorescence, DNA digestion, chromatin condensation, and proteolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. This proteolysis is a marker for the action of ICE/CED-3 proteases, which are critical activators of apoptosis. We observed that three serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid, calyculin A, and cantharidin, prevented all of these apoptotic characteristics. To determine which protein phosphatase was involved, we investigated the dephosphorylation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility protein Rb, a substrate for protein phosphatase 1 but not protein phosphatase 2A. Rb was dephosphorylated during apoptosis, and each inhibitor prevented this dephosphorylation at the same concentrations that prevented apoptosis. No increase in protein phosphatase 1 activity was observed in apoptotic cells suggesting that dephosphorylation of Rb may result from loss of Rb kinase activity in the presence of a constant level of protein phosphatase activity. Long term inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 (>8 h) also led to the appearance of dephosphorylated Rb, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and apoptosis, suggesting these events are not solely dependent upon protein phosphatase 1. Rb dephosphorylation was also observed in several other models of apoptosis. Hence, an imbalance between protein phosphatase 1 and Rb kinase may be a common means to activate ICE/CED-3 proteases resulting in the subsequent events of apoptosis. (+info)
Inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatases alter circadian properties in Gonyaulax polyedra.
(75/89)Protein serine/threonine phosphatases were implicated in the regulation of circadian rhythmicity in the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra based on the effects of three inhibitors specific for protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (okadaic acid, calyculin A, and cantharidin). Chronic exposure to okadaic acid resulted in a significant period lengthening, as measured by the bioluminescent glow rhythm, whereas cantharidin and calyculin A caused large phase delays but no persistent effect on period. Short pulses of the phosphatase inhibitors resulted in phase delays that were greatest near subjective dawn. Unlike 6-dimethylaminopurine, a protein kinase inhibitor, okadaic acid, calyculin A, and cantharidin did not block light-induced phase shifts. The inhibitors tested also increased radiolabeled phosphate incorporation into Gonyaulax proteins in vivo and blocked protein phosphatase 1 and 2A activities in Gonyaulax extracts. This study indicates that protein dephosphorylation catalyzed by protein serine/threonine phosphatases is necessary for proper functioning of the circadian system. (+info)
Chemical basis of courtship in a beetle (Neopyrochroa flabellata): cantharidin as precopulatory "enticing" agent.
(76/89)Male Neopyrochroa flabellata have a natural affinity for cantharidin (Spanish fly). They are attracted to cantharidin baits in the field and feed on the compound if it is offered to them in the laboratory. Males that ingest cantharidin secrete cantharidin from a cephalic gland. Females sample secretion from this gland during courtship and mate preferentially with males that had fed on cantharidin. Cantharidin-unfed males can be rendered acceptable to females if cantharidin is added to their cephalic gland. (+info)
Chemical basis of courtship in a beetle (Neopyrochroa flabellata): Cantharidin as "nuptial gift".
(77/89)The amount of cantharidin (Spanish fly) that the Neopyrochroa flabellata male presents to the female as a glandular offering during courtship represents only a small fraction of the total cantharidin the male accumulates systemically following ingestion of the compound. A major fraction of the acquired cantharidin is stored by the male in the large accessory glands of the reproductive system. At mating, the male transfers this supply, presumably as part of the sperm package, to the spermatheca of the female. The female in turn allocates the gift to the eggs. Eggs endowed with cantharidin proved relatively invulnerable to attack by a predaceous beetle larva (Coleomegilla maculata). (+info)
Effects of cantharidin on force of contraction and phosphatase activity in nonfailing and failing human hearts.
(78/89)1. The effect of the phosphatase inhibitor, cantharidin (3-300 microM) on force of contraction was studied in isolated electrically driven right ventricular trabeculae carneae from human myocardium. 2. The positive inotropic effect of cantharidin started at a concentration of 100 microM with a positive inotropic effect to 199% and to 276% of the predrug value in nonfailing and failing human hearts, respectively. 3. Under basal conditions the contraction time parameters were prolonged in human heart failure vs. nonfailing preparations. However, the positive inotropic effect of cantharidin did not affect contraction time parameters. Thus, time to peak tension, time of relaxation and total contraction time were not shortened by cantharidin in nonfailing and failing preparations. 4. The phosphatase activity was unchanged in preparations from failing hearts compared to nonfailing hearts. 5. Cantharidin inhibited phosphatase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 value of cantharidin was about 3 microM in both nonfailing and failing human myocardium. 6. The positive inotropic effect of cantharidin was similar in nonfailing and failing human hearts, accompanied by a similar inhibitory effect of cantharidin on the phosphatase activity. The positive inotropic effect of cantharidin in failing hearts was as strong as the effect of isoprenaline in nonfailing hearts. 7. It is concluded that the treatment with a phosphatase inhibitor may offer a new positive inotropic modality for the treatment of human heart failure. (+info)
The effect of the protein phosphatases inhibitor cantharidin on beta-adrenoceptor-mediated vasorelaxation.
(79/89)1. Cantharidin, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase types 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), increased basal tone of bovine isolated coronary artery rings (CARs) with and without endothelium in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with pEC50 values of about 5.1 and 5.2, respectively, for both preparations. 2. Beta-Adrenoceptor stimulation with isoprenaline (Iso; 0.03-100 microM) or inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX; 10-1000 microM), respectively, relaxed CARs precontracted with KCl (75 mM). CARs with and without endothelium showed no difference in the relaxing response to Iso and IBMX, respectively. 3. Cantharidin (3 microM) attenuated vasorelaxation induced by Iso (0.03-100 microM) in CARs with and without endothelium in a time-dependent manner, whereas vasorelaxation induced by IBMX (10-1000 microM) was not attenuated by 3 microM cantharidin. 4. Cantharidin (3 microM) did not affect cyclic AMP content in bovine cultured vascular cells, i.e. coronary artery smooth muscle cells (BCs), aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs), either under basal conditions, after beta-adrenoceptor stimulation (Iso) or inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity (IBMX), respectively. 5. Cantharidin inhibited protein phosphatase activity in homogenates from bovine coronary artery rings with a pIC50 of about 6.0. In homogenates of bovine cultured vascular cells pIC50 values of cantharidin amounted to about 6.5 for BCs, 6.7 for BAECs and 6.7 for BASMCs, respectively. 6. It was concluded that cantharidin differently affects vasorelaxation due to stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors (Iso) or inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity (IBMX), respectively. The attenuation of beta-adrenoceptor-mediated vasorelaxation by phosphatase inhibition is not due to diminished adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) generation but could be evidence for different subcellular compartments of cyclic AMP. (+info)
Inhibitors of protein kinases and phosphatases alter root morphology and disorganize cortical microtubules.
(80/89)To investigate molecular mechanisms controlling plant morphogenesis, we examined the morphology of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the organization of cortical microtubules in response to inhibitors of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and kinases. We found that cantharidin, an inhibitor of types 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, as previously reported for okadaic acid and calyculin A (R.D. Smith, J.E. Wilson, J.C. Walker, T.I. Baskin  Planta 194: 516-524), inhibited elongation and stimulated radial expansion. Of the protein kinase inhibitors tested, chelerythrine, 6-dimethylaminopurine, H-89, K252a, ML-9, and staurosporine all inhibited elongation, but only staurosporine appreciably stimulated radial expansion. To determine the basis for the root swelling, we examined cortical microtubules in semithin sections of material embedded in butyl-methyl-methacrylate. Chelerythrine and 100 nM okadaic acid, which inhibited elongation without causing swelling, did not change the appearance of cortical arrays, but calyculin A, cantharidin, and staurosporine, which caused swelling, disorganized cortical microtubules. The stability of the microtubules in the aberrant arrays was not detectably different from those in control arrays, as judged by similar sensitivity to depolymerization by cold or oryzalin. These results identify protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation as requirements in one or more steps that organize the cortical array of microtubules. (+info)