Binding of camphor to Pseudomonas putida cytochrome p450(cam): steady-state and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence studies.
(9/184)The binding of camphor to cytochrome P450(cam) has been investigated by steady-state and time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy to obtain information on the substrate access channel. The fluorescence quenching experiments show that some of the tryptophan residues undergo changes in their local environment on camphor binding. The time-resolved fluorescence decay profile gives four lifetime components in the range from 99 ps to 4.5 ns. The shortest lifetime component assigned to W42 lies close to the proposed camphor access channel. The results show that the fluorescence of W42 is greatly affected on binding of camphor, and supports dynamic fluctuations involved in the passage of camphor through the access channel as proposed earlier on the basis of crystallographic, molecular dynamics simulation and site-directed mutagenesis studies. (+info)
Catalytic reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane by molecular variants of cytochrome P450cam (CYP101).
(10/184)CYP101 (cytochrome P450cam) catalyses the oxidation of camphor but has also been shown to catalyse the reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane and pentachloroethane. This reaction has potential applications in the biodegradation of these environmental contaminants. The hexachloroethane dehalogenation activity of CYP101 has been investigated by mutagenesis. The effects of active-site polarity and volume were probed by combinations of active-site mutations. Increasing the active-site hydrophobicity by the Y96A and Y96F mutations strengthened hexachloroethane binding but decreased the rate of reaction. Increasing the polarity with the F87Y mutation drastically weakened hexachloroethane binding but did not affect the rate of reaction. The Y96H mutation had little effect at pH 7.4, but weakened hexachloroethane binding while increasing the rate of dehalogenation by up to 40% at pH 6.5, suggesting that the imidazole side-chain was partially protonated at pH 6.5 but not at pH 7.4. Substitutions by bulkier side-chains at F87, T101 and V247 weakened hexachloroethane binding but increased the dehalogenation rate. The effect of the individual mutations was additive in multiple mutants, and the most active mutant for hexachloroethane reductive dehalogenation at pH 7.4 was F87W-V247L (80 min-1 or 2.5 x the activity of the wild-type). The results suggested that the CYP101 active site shows good match with hexachloroethane, the Y96 side-chain plays an important role in both hexachloroethane binding and dehalogenation, and hexachloroethane binding and dehalogenation places conflicting demands on active-site polarity and compromises were necessary to achieve reasonable values for both. (+info)
Cold, cough, allergy, bronchodilator, and antiasthmatic drug products for over-the-counter human use; amendment of final monograph for OTC antitussive drug products. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.
(11/184)The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph for over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive drug products (products that relieve cough). Use of topical/inhalant products containing camphor or menthol near a flame, in hot water, or in a microwave oven may cause the products to splatter and cause serious burns to the user. As part of its ongoing review of OTC drug products, FDA is adding warnings and directions to inform consumers about these improper uses and is amending its final regulations for OTC drug labeling requirements to add this new flammability warning for antitussive drug products containing camphor or menthol. (+info)
X-ray crystal structure and catalytic properties of Thr252Ile mutant of cytochrome P450cam: roles of Thr252 and water in the active center.
(12/184)The structure-function relationship in cytochrome P450cam monooxygenase was studied by employing its active site mutant Thr252Ile. X-ray crystallographic analyses of the ferric d-camphor-bound form of the mutant revealed that the mutation caused a structural change in the active site giving an enlarged oxygen-binding pocket that did not contain any hydrophilic group such as the OH group of Thr and H(2)O. The enzyme showed a low monooxygenase activity of ca. 1/10 of the activity of the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic analyses of each catalytic step revealed that the rate of proton-coupled reduction of the oxygenated intermediate of the enzyme, a ternary complex of dioxygen and d-camphor with the ferrous enzyme, decreased to about 1/30 of that of the wild-type enzyme, while the rates of other catalytic steps including the reduction of the ferric d-camphor-bound form by reduced putidaredoxin did not change significantly. These results indicated that a hydrophilic group(s) such as water and/or hydroxyl group in the active site is prerequisite to a proton supply for the reduction of the oxygenated intermediate, thereby giving support for the operation of a proton transfer network composed of Thr252, Asp251, and two other amino acids and water proposed by previous investigators. (+info)
Proximal cysteine residue is essential for the enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450cam.
(13/184)To investigate the functional and structural roles of the proximal thiolate ligand in cytochrome P450cam, we prepared the C357H mutant of the enzyme in which the axial cysteine residue (Cys357) was replaced with a histidine residue. We obtained the unstable C357H mutant by developing a new preparation procedure involving in vitro folding of P450cam from the inclusion bodies. The C357H mutant in the ferrous-CO form exhibited the Soret peak at 420 nm and the Fe-CO stretching line at 498 cm-1, indicating a neutral histidine residue as the axial ligand. However, another internal ligand is coordinated to the heme iron as the sixth ligand in the ferric and ferrous forms of the C357H mutant, suggesting the collapse of the substrate-binding site. The C357H mutant showed no catalytic activity for camphor hydroxylation and the reduced heterolytic/homolytic ratio of the O-O bond scission in the reaction with cumene hydroperoxide. The present observations indicate that the thiolate coordination in P450cam is important for the construction of the heme pocket and the heterolysis of the O-O bond. (+info)
The desymmetrization of bicyclic beta -diketones by an enzymatic retro-Claisen reaction. A new reaction of the crotonase superfamily.
(14/184)The enzyme 6-oxocamphor hydrolase, which catalyzes the desymmetrization of 6-oxocamphor to yield (2R,4S)-alpha-campholinic acid, has been purified with a factor of 35.7 from a wild type strain of Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 9784 grown on (1R)-(+)-camphor as the sole carbon source. The enzyme has a subunit molecular mass of 28,488 Da by electrospray mass spectrometry and a native molecular mass of approximately 83,000 Da indicating that the active protein is trimeric. The specific activity was determined to be 357.5 units mg(-)1, and the K(m) was determined to be 0.05 mm for the natural substrate. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained from the purified protein, and using this information, the gene encoding the enzyme was cloned. The translation of the gene was found to bear significant homology to the crotonase superfamily of enzymes. The gene is closely associated with an open reading frame encoding a ferredoxin reductase that may be involved in the initial step in the biodegradation of camphor. A mechanism for 6-oxocamphor hydrolase based on sequence homology and the known mechanism of the crotonase enzymes is proposed. (+info)
In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity of UV screens.
(15/184)Ultraviolet (UV) screens are increasingly used as a result of growing concern about UV radiation and skin cancer; they are also added to cosmetics and other products for light stability. Recent data on bioaccumulation in wildlife and humans point to a need for in-depth analyses of systemic toxicology, in particular with respect to reproduction and ontogeny. We examined six frequently used UVA and UVB screens for estrogenicity in vitro and in vivo. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, five out of six chemicals, that is, benzophenone-3 (Bp-3), homosalate (HMS), 4-methyl-benzylidene camphor (4-MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), and octyl-dimethyl-PABA (OD-PABA), increased cell proliferation with median effective concentrations (EC(50)) values between 1.56 and 3.73 microM, whereas butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (B-MDM) was inactive. Further evidence for estrogenic activity was the induction of pS2 protein in MCF-7 cells and the blockade of the proliferative effect of 4-MBC by the estrogen antagonist ICI 182,780. In the uterotrophic assay using immature Long-Evans rats that received the chemicals for 4 days in powdered feed, uterine weight was dose-dependently increased by 4-MBC (ED(50 )309mg/kg/day), OMC (ED(50) 935 mg/kg/day), and weakly by Bp-3 (active at 1,525 mg/kg/day). Three compounds were inactive by the oral route in the doses tested. Dermal application of 4-MBC to immature hairless (hr/hr) rats also increased uterine weight at concentrations of 5 and 7.5% in olive oil. Our findings indicate that UV screens should be tested for endocrine activity, in view of possible long-term effects in humans and wildlife. (+info)
Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P-450. The effect of complexes of the ferric hemeprotein on the relaxation of solvent water protons.
(16/184)With pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, the effects of various complexes of ferric cytochrome P-450 on the relaxation rate of bulk solution water protons have been determined. For the camphor, metyrapone, and 4-phenylimidazole complexes, the experimental results are consistent with outer sphere relaxation effects. However, for the substrate-free enzyme, the magnitude and temperature dependence of the paramagnetic relaxation effects indicate the presence of exchangeable protons in the coordination sphere of the heme iron atom. The exchange rate (9.3 x 10(4) S-1 at 25 degrees) and the thermodynamic activation parameters for the exchange process are very similar to those of acid metmyoglobin and acid methemoglobin, suggesting that a water molecule, and not an amino acid residue of the protein, coordinates to the ferric cation of the enzyme in the absence of added substrate or ligands. From the equations appropriate for coordination sphere protons, the distance between these protons and the ferric heme cation was evaluated as 2.1 A, which further supports the interpretation. These experimental results demonstrate that the solvent accessibility of the ferric cation of substrate-free cytochrome P-450 is significantly reduced by the binding of substrate or nitrogenous ligands to the hemeprotein. (+info)