Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism.
(33/184)Camphor is a naturally occurring compound that is used as a major active ingredient of balms and liniments supplied as topical analgesics. Despite its long history of common medical use, the underlying molecular mechanism of camphor action is not understood. Capsaicin and menthol, two other topically applied agents widely used for similar purposes, are known to excite and desensitize sensory nerves by acting on two members of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily: heat-sensitive TRP vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) and cold-sensitive TRP channel M8, respectively. Camphor has recently been shown to activate TRPV3, and here we show that camphor also activates heterologously expressed TRPV1, requiring higher concentrations than capsaicin. Activation was enhanced by phospholipase C-coupled receptor stimulation mimicking inflamed conditions. Similar camphor-activated TRPV1-like currents were observed in isolated rat DRG neurons and were strongly potentiated after activation of protein kinase C with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. Camphor activation of rat TRPV1 was mediated by distinct channel regions from capsaicin, as indicated by camphor activation in the presence of the competitive inhibitor capsazepine and in a capsaicin-insensitive point mutant. Camphor did not activate the capsaicin-insensitive chicken TRPV1. TRPV1 desensitization is believed to contribute to the analgesic actions of capsaicin. We found that, although camphor activates TRPV1 less effectively, camphor application desensitized TRPV1 more rapidly and completely than capsaicin. Conversely, TRPV3 current sensitized after repeated camphor applications, which is inconsistent with the analgesic role of camphor. We also found that camphor inhibited several other related TRP channels, including ankyrin-repeat TRP 1 (TRPA1). The camphor-induced desensitization of TRPV1 and block of TRPA1 may underlie the analgesic effects of camphor. (+info)
In vitro evaluation of the susceptibility of endodontic pathogens to calcium hydroxide combined with different vehicles.
(34/184)The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] in combination with different vehicles against endodontic pathogens. For such purpose, a broth dilution test was performed. Pastes were prepared with Ca(OH)2 powder and the following vehicles: sterile water, glycerin, camphorated monochlorophenol (CMCP), CMCP + glycerin, polyethyleneglycol and CMCP + polyethyleneglycol. The time required for the pastes to produce negative cultures against the tested microorganisms was recorded and analyzed statistically using the Kruskal Wallis test at 5% significance level. Timing for pastes to eliminate the aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms ranged from 6 to 24 h, while strict anaerobic microorganisms were inhibited within 30 s to 5 min. Microbial susceptibility, ranked from weakest to strongest, can be presented as follows: Enterococcus faecalis (the most resistant microorganism), Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Prevotella intermedia (the last two microorganisms required the same time to be eliminated). In conclusion, calcium hydroxide pastes needed more time to eliminate facultative than anaerobic microorganisms. These findings suggest that the antimicrobial property is related both to paste formulation and to microbial susceptibility. (+info)
The effect of heme environment on the hydrogen abstraction reaction of camphor in P450cam catalysis: a QM/MM study.
(35/184)The discrepancies between the published QM/MM studies (Schoneboom, J. C.; Cohen, S.; Lin, H.; Shaik, S.; Thiel, W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 4017; Guallar, V.; Friesner, R. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 8501) on H-abstraction of camphor in P450cam have largely been resolved. The crystallographic water molecule 903 situated near the oxo atom of Compound I acts as a catalyst for H-abstraction, lowering the barrier by about 4 kcal/mol. Spin density at the A-propionate side chain of heme can occur in the case of incomplete screening but has no major effect on the computed barrier. (+info)
The ultraviolet filter 3-benzylidene camphor adversely affects reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).
(36/184)The ultraviolet (UV) filter 3-benzylidene camphor (3BC) is used in personal care products and in a number of materials for UV protection. 3BC has been shown in vitro and in vivo in fish to be estrogenic, but possible effects on fertility and reproduction are unknown. In this study we evaluate whether 3BC affects reproduction of fish Pimephales promelas. After a preexposure period of 21 days, reproductively mature fathead minnows were exposed to increasing concentrations of 3BC for 21 days in a static-renewal procedure. Actual 3BC concentrations decreased to 23% of initial levels and median concentrations were 0.5, 3, 33, 74, and 285 microg/l. 3BC affected reproduction in a dose-dependent manner with weak effects on fecundity at 3 microg/l, a significant decrease at 74 microg/l, and a cessation of reproduction at 285 microg/l. 3BC was accumulated in fish with an average bioconcentration factor of 313 +/- 151. Dose-dependent demasculinization in secondary sex characteristics of male fish and dose-dependent induction of plasma vitellogenin occurred, which was significant at 74 microg/l and higher. 3BC had a profound and dose-dependent effect on the histology of gonads of male and female fish at 3 microg/l and higher. At 74 and 285 microg/l, oocyte and spermatocyte development was inhibited in male and female gonads. Testes of exposed males had much fewer spermatogenic cysts, and ovaries of exposed females had much fewer mature but more atretic, follicles. This study shows significant effects of the UV filter 3BC on fertility, gonadal development, and reproduction of fish after short-term exposure that may have negative consequences on the population level. (+info)
Putidaredoxin-to-cytochrome P450cam electron transfer: differences between the two reductive steps required for catalysis.
(37/184)Cytochrome P450cam (P450cam) is the terminal monooxygenase in a three-component camphor-hydroxylating system from Pseudomonas putida. The reaction cycle requires two distinct electron transfer (ET) processes from the [2Fe-2S] containing putidaredoxin (Pdx) to P450cam. Even though the mechanism of interaction and ET between the two proteins has been under investigation for over 30 years, the second reductive step and the effector role of Pdx are not fully understood. We utilized mutagenesis, kinetic, and computer modeling approaches to better understand differences between the two Pdx-to-P450cam ET events. Our results indicate that interacting residues and the ET pathways in the complexes formed between reduced Pdx (Pdx(r)) and the ferric and ferrous dioxygen-bound forms of P450cam (oxy-P450cam) are different. Pdx Asp38 and Trp106 were found to be key players in both reductive steps. Compared to the wild-type Pdx, the D38A, W106A, and delta106 mutants exhibited considerably higher Kd values for ferric P450cam and retained ca. 20% of the first electron transferring ability. In contrast, the binding affinity of the mutants for oxy-P450cam was not substantially altered while the second ET rates were <1%. On the basis of the kinetic and modeling data we conclude that (i) P450cam-Pdx interaction is highly specific in part because it is guided/controlled by the redox state of both partners; (ii) there are alternative ET routes from Pdx(r) to ferric P450cam and a unique pathway to oxy-P450cam involving Asp38; (iii) Pdx Trp106 is a key structural element that couples the second ET event to product formation possibly via its "push" effect on the heme-binding loop. (+info)
Differential behavior of the sub-sites of cytochrome 450 active site in binding of substrates, and products (implications for coupling/uncoupling).
(38/184)The cytochrome P450 catalyzes hydroxylation of many substrates in the presence of O(2) and specific electron transport system. The ternary complex S-Fe(+)O(2) with substrate and O(2) bound to their respective sites on the reduced enzyme is an important intermediate in the formation of the hydroxylating species. Then the active site may be considered as having two sub-sites geared for entirely different types of functionally relevant interactions. The two sites are the substrate binding site, the specific protein residues (Site I), and the L(6) position of the iron (Site II) to which O(2) binds upon reduction. In the ferric enzyme, when substrate binds to Site I, the low spin six-coordinated P450 is converted to the readily reducible high spin five coordinated state. Certain amines and OH compounds, such as products of P450-catalyzed reactions, can bind to Site II resulting in six coordinated inhibited complexes. Then the substrate and product interactions with the two sub-sites can regulate the functional state of the enzyme during catalysis. Product interactions have received very little attention. CYP101 is the only P450 in which X-ray and spectroscopic data on all three structures, the substrate-free, camphor-bound and the 5-exo-OHcamphor-bound are available. The substrate-free CYP101 is low spin and six-coordinated with a water molecule ligated at the L(6) position of the iron. The substrate camphor binds to Site I, and releases the L(6) water despite its inability to bind to this site, indicating that Site I binding can inhibit Site II ligation. The product 5-exo-OHcamphor in addition to binding to Site I, binds to Site II through its -OH group forming Fe-O bond, resulting in the low spin six-coordinated complex. New temperature-jump relaxation kinetic data indicating that Site II ligation inhibits Site I binding are presented. It appears that the Site I and Site II function as interacting sub-sites. The inhibitory allosteric interactions between the two sub-sites are also reflected in the data on binding of the substrate camphor (S) in the presence of the product 5-exo-OH camphor (P) to CYP101 (E). The data are in accordance with the two-site model involving the ternary complex ESP. The affinity of the substrate to the product-bound enzyme as well as the affinity of the product to the substrate-bound enzyme decreased with increase in product concentration, which is consistent with mixed inhibition indicative of inhibitory allosteric interactions between the two sub-sites. Implications of these observations for coupling/uncoupling mechanisms are discussed in the light of the published findings consistent with the two-site behavior of the P450 active site. In addition, kinetic data indicating that the transient high spin intermediate may have to be taken into account for understanding how some P450s have been able to express appreciable hydroxylation activities in the absence of substrate-induced low to high spin transition, observable by the traditional static spectroscopy, are presented. (+info)
In vitro metabolism of (-)-camphor using human liver microsomes and CYP2A6.
(39/184)The in vitro metabolism of (-)-camphor was examined in human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes. Biotransformation of (-)-camphor was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (-)-Camphor was oxidized to 5-exo-hydroxyfenchone by human liver microsomal cytochrome (P450) enzymes. The formation of metabolites of (-)-camphor was determined by the relative abundance of mass fragments and retention time on gas chromatography (GC). CYP2A6 was the major enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of (-)-camphor by human liver microsomes, based on the following lines of evidence. First, of eleven recombinant human P450 enzymes tested, CYP2A6 catalyzed the oxidation of (-)-camphor. Second, oxidation of (-)-camphor was inhibited by (+)-menthofuran and anti-CYP2A6 antibody. Finally, there was a good correlation between CYP2A6 contents and (-)-camphor hydroxylation activities in liver microsomes of 9 human samples. (+info)
Anti-AIDS agents 72. Bioisosteres (7-carbon-DCKs) of the potent anti-HIV lead DCK.
(40/184)Three 9,10-di-O-(-)-camphanoyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[h]chromen-2-one (7-carbon-DCK) analogs (3a-c) were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in H9 lymphocytes. All three new carbon bioisosteres of the anti-HIV lead DCK showed anti-HIV activity. Compound 3a had an EC(50) value of 0.068 microM, which was comparable to that of DCK in the same assay. The preliminary results indicated that 7-carbon-DCK analogs merit attention as potential HIV-1 inhibitors for further development into clinical trials candidates. (+info)