Crystal structure of the cytochrome p450cam mutant that exhibits the same spectral perturbations induced by putidaredoxin binding.
(25/184)The cytochrome P450cam active site is known to be perturbed by binding to its redox partner, putidaredoxin (Pdx). Pdx binding also enhances the camphor monooxygenation reaction (Nagano, S., Shimada, H., Tarumi, A., Hishiki, T., Kimata-Ariga, Y., Egawa, T., Suematsu, M., Park, S.-Y., Adachi, S., Shiro, Y., and Ishimura, Y. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 14507-14514). These effects are unique to Pdx because nonphysiological electron donors are unable to support camphor monooxygenation. The accompanying 1H NMR paper (Tosha, T., Yoshioka, S., Ishimori, K., and Morishima, I. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42836-42843) shows that the conformation of active site residues, Thr-252 and Cys-357, and the substrate in the ferrous (Fe(II)) CO complex of the L358P mutant mimics that of the wild-type enzyme complexed to Pdx. To explore how these changes are transmitted from the Pdx-binding site to the active site, we have solved the crystal structures of the ferrous and ferrous-CO complex of wild-type and the L358P mutant. Comparison of these structures shows that the L358P mutation results in the movement of Arg-112, a residue known to be important for putidaredoxin binding, toward the heme. This change could optimize the Pdx-binding site leading to a higher affinity for Pdx. The mutation also pushes the heme toward the substrate and ligand binding pocket, which relocates the substrate to a position favorable for regio-selective hydroxylation. The camphor is held more firmly in place as indicated by a lower average temperature factor. Residues involved in the catalytically important proton shuttle system in the I helix are also altered by the mutation. Such conformational alterations and the enhanced reactivity of the mutant oxy complex with non-physiological electron donors suggest that Pdx binding optimizes the distal pocket for monooxygenation of camphor. (+info)
L358P mutation on cytochrome P450cam simulates structural changes upon putidaredoxin binding: the structural changes trigger electron transfer to oxy-P450cam from electron donors.
(26/184)To investigate the functional and structural characterization of a crucial cytochrome P450cam (P450cam)-putidaredoxin (Pdx) complex, we utilized a mutant whose spectroscopic property corresponds to the properties of the wild type P450cam in the presence of Pdx. The 1H NMR spectrum of the carbonmonoxy adduct of the mutant, the Leu-358 --> Pro mutant (L358P), in the absence of Pdx showed that the ring current-shifted signals arising from d-camphor were upfield-shifted and observed as resolved signals, which are typical for the wild type enzyme in the presence of Pdx. Signals from the beta-proton of the axial cysteine and the gamma-methyl group of Thr-252 were also shifted upfield and down-field, respectively, in the L358P mutant as observed for Pdx-bound wild type P450cam. The close similarity in the NMR spectra suggests that the heme environment of the L358P mutant mimics that of the Pdx-bound enzyme. The functional analysis of the L358P mutant has revealed that the oxygen adduct of the L358P mutant can promote the oxygenation reaction for d-camphor with nonphysiological electron donors such as dithionite and ascorbic acid, showing that oxygenated L358P is "activated" to receive electron from the donor. Based on the structural and functional characterization of the L358P mutant, we conclude that the Pdx-induced structural changes in P450cam would facilitate the electron transfer from the electron donor, and the Pdx binding to P450cam would be a trigger for the electron transfer to oxygenated P450cam. (+info)
Influence of different vehicles on the pH of calcium hydroxide pastes.
(27/184)The main known benefit of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament lies in the bactericidal effect conferred by its pH. The objective of this work was to determine the influence of the vehicle on the pH of calcium hydroxide pastes after usage in patients and in vitro. The incisor root canals of 180 patients were instrumented and filled with calcium hydroxide pastes containing distilled water, chlorhexidine, propylene glycol, anesthetic solution, camphorated p-monochlorophenol and camphorated p-monochlorophenol-propylene glycol. The pH of the paste in the patients' root canals was measured at 7, 14 and 21 days. Similarly, pH was measured in vitro up to 21 days. The pH of all the pastes remained constant throughout the time periods assessed. The calcium hydroxide-water combination showed significantly higher pH values than the other pastes in clinical use. Comparative analysis showed that the pH values of the anesthetic solution, camphorated p-monochlorophenol and camphorated p-monochlorophenol-propylene glycol were significantly higher in vitro. The type of vehicle was shown to influence the final pH of the pastes. However, the alkalinity of all pastes was maintained over time under the experimental conditions. (+info)
Mechanism of action and resistant profile of anti-HIV-1 coumarin derivatives.
(28/184)Dicamphanoyl khellactone (DCK) is a coumarin derivative that can potently inhibit HIV-1 replication. DCK does not inhibit RNA-dependent DNA synthesis. However, an HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor-resistant strain, HIV-1/RTMDR1, is resistant to DCK. Thus, it is possible that HIV-1 RT is the target of DCK. To test this possibility, DCK-resistant viruses were selected in the presence of DCK. Our results indicate that a single amino acid mutation, E138K in HIV-1 RT, is sufficient to confer DCK resistance. Interestingly, a DCK derivative, 3'R,4'R-Di-O-(-)-camphanoyl-2-ethyl-2',2'-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DCP8), is effective against HIV-1/RTMDR1. However, the DCK-escape virus carrying the E138K mutation remains resistant to DCP8. Since DCK did not inhibit the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT when using poly-rA or poly-rC as template, we evaluated the effect of DCK on the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT. Our results indicate that DCK can inhibit the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT. In conclusion, DCK is a unique HIV-1 RT inhibitor that inhibits the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. In contrast, DCK did not significantly affect the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity when poly-rA or poly-rC was used as templates. An E138K mutation in the non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) binding pocket of HIV-1 RT confers resistance to DCK and its chromone derivative, DCP8. (+info)
Impaired thermosensation in mice lacking TRPV3, a heat and camphor sensor in the skin.
(29/184)Environmental temperature is thought to be directly sensed by neurons through their projections in the skin. A subset of the mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels has been implicated in this process. These "thermoTRPs" are activated at distinct temperature thresholds and are typically expressed in sensory neurons. TRPV3 is activated by heat (>33 degrees C) and, unlike most thermoTRPs, is expressed in mouse keratinocytes. We found that TRPV3 null mice have strong deficits in responses to innocuous and noxious heat but not in other sensory modalities; hence, TRPV3 has a specific role in thermosensation. The natural compound camphor, which modulates sensations of warmth in humans, proved to be a specific activator of TRPV3. Camphor activated cultured primary keratinocytes but not sensory neurons, and this activity was abolished in TRPV3 null mice. Therefore, heat-activated receptors in keratinocytes are important for mammalian thermosensation. (+info)
Formulation design and optimization of mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide using vacuum drying technique.
(30/184)The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide. Granules containing nimesulide, camphor, crospovidone, and lactose were prepared by wet granulation technique. Camphor was sublimed from the dried granules by exposure to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability, wetting time, and disintegration time. In the investigation, a 32 full factorial design was used to investigate the joint influence of 2 formulation variables: amount of camphor and crospovidone. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that for obtaining a rapidly disintegrating dosage form, tablets should be prepared using an optimum concentration of camphor and a higher percentage of crospovidone. A contour plot is also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the disintegration time and percentage friability. A checkpoint batch was also prepared to prove the validity of the evolved mathematical model. Sublimation of camphor from tablets resulted in superior tablets as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The systematic formulation approach helped in understanding the effect of formulation processing variables. (+info)
Anti-AIDS agents 65: investigation of the in vitro oxidative metabolism of 3',4'-Di-O-(-)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone derivatives as potent anti-hiv agents.
(31/184)3',4'-Di-O-(-)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone (DCK) is a synthetic khellactone ester that exhibits potent in vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity with a mechanism distinct from clinically used anti-HIV agents. Several series of mono- and di-substituted DCK derivatives (DCKs) have previously been synthesized, and their structure-activity relationships are well established. To optimize DCK as a drug lead and to guide further structural modifications, metabolic stabilities and metabolite structures were analyzed. In vitro metabolic stabilities of DCKs in human liver microsomes were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection to establish structure-metabolism relationships (SMRs). HPLC coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify the metabolite structures. The results indicated that DCKs undergo rapid oxidation on the lipophilic camphanoyl moieties and the substituents on the khellactone do not alter the rate or the metabolic pathways for this compound type. Our SMR and metabolite analysis study suggested that the two camphanoyl ester moieties are the determinants of the low metabolic stability and that structural alteration in the two esters may be necessary to improve metabolic profiles of DCKs. (+info)
Direct observation of a novel perturbed oxyferrous catalytic intermediate during reduced putidaredoxin-initiated turnover of cytochrome P-450-CAM: probing the effector role of putidaredoxin in catalysis.
(32/184)The single turnover of (1R)(+)-camphor-bound oxyferrous cytochrome P450-CAM with one equivalent of dithionite-reduced putidaredoxin (Pdx) was monitored for the appearance of transient intermediates at 3 degrees C by double mixing rapid scanning stopped-flow spectroscopy. With excess camphor, three successive species were observed after generating oxyferrous P450-CAM and reacting versus reduced Pdx: a perturbed oxyferrous derivative, a species that was a mixture of high and low spin Fe(III), and high spin ferric camphor-bound enzyme. The rates of the first two steps, approximately 140 and approximately 85 s(-1), were assigned to formation of the perturbed oxyferrous intermediate and to electron transfer from reduced Pdx, respectively. In the presence of stoichiometric substrate, three phases with similar rates were seen even though the final state is low spin ferric P450-CAM. This is consistent with substrate being hydroxylated during the reaction. The single turnover reaction initiated by adding dioxygen to a preformed reduced P450-CAM.Pdx complex with excess camphor also led to phases with similar rates. It is proposed that formation of the perturbed oxyferrous intermediate reflects alteration of H-bonding to the proximal Cys, increasing the reduction potential of the oxyferrous state and triggering electron transfer from reduced Pdx. This species may be a direct spectral signature of the effector role of Pdx on P450-CAM reactivity (i.e. during catalysis). The substrate-free oxyferrous enzyme also reacted readily with reduced Pdx, showing that the inability of substrate-free P450-CAM to accept electrons from reduced Pdx and function as an NADH oxidase is completely due to the incapacity of reduced Pdx to deliver the first but not the second electron. (+info)