The effect of dietary restriction during development in utero on the frequency of spontaneous somatic mutations.
Caloric or dietary restriction is known to be protective against cancer in humans and in mice but the mechanism is uncertain. Given that somatic mutations are important in carcinogenesis, dietary restriction may act by changing mutation rates. Indeed, previous studies have shown that reductions in caloric intake during development or in adult life make mice less susceptible to high doses of mutagens. In these studies there have been hints that the spontaneous mutant frequency may also be reduced, but no significant decrease has been observed save in one study of very old mice. Since the spontaneous mutant frequency is already low, reductions from this level require the use of much larger sample sizes than usual and larger than those used in the previous studies. As pre-existing mutations cannot be eliminated, it is necessary to reduce the dietary intake over a period of time when a substantial proportion of spontaneous mutations arise in order to see an effect. To overcome such problems, the dietary restriction in this study was applied during the time of the highest mutation rate, early development, and many more than the usual number of animals were studied. SWR female mice were crossed with Muta(TM)Mouse males to obtain F(1) progeny for analysis of mutant frequency. At conception, the dams were put into two groups, one that was fed ad libitum and another which was fed 80% of the ad libitum diet. Pups were killed at birth, DNA was extracted from the whole animal and used to measure the mutant frequencies of the mice at the cII locus. Although the weights of the pups from dams whose diet was restricted were significantly less than those of the ad libitum mice (P = 0.003), the litter sizes in the two groups were approximately the same and did not differ significantly (P = 0.13). There was no significant difference in the mutant frequencies in the dietarily restricted and ad libitum groups (P = 0.43). In addition, there was no significant correlation between the weights of the pups and their mutant frequency in either the ad libitum or dietarily restricted groups (r(2) = 0.14 and r(2) = 0.024). No difference was observed in mutant frequency between the ad libitum and dietarily restricted mice from litters of the same size (P = 0.61). These results indicate that the protective effect of dietary restriction on cancer rates is not mediated by an alteration in the spontaneous rate of mutation but rather by another mechanism, such as its effect on induced mutation. (+info)
Evidence that the decrease in liver glycogen is associated with the exercise-induced increase in IGFBP-1.
The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the exercise-induced increase in insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 is not always linked to a decrease in blood glucose level and to examine whether the decreasing levels of liver glycogen during exercise may be associated with the increase in IGFBP-1. Three groups of rats were submitted to a 70-min treadmill exercise. One group of rats was fed normally, and the two other groups had their food intake restricted by 50% (50% fast) the night before the experiment. One of these two 50% fasted groups of rats was infused (intravenously) with glucose throughout exercise to maintain euglycemia. Exercise in noninfused 50% fasted rats, compared with the normally fed rats, resulted in significantly lower blood glucose (minute 70) and insulin levels, significantly lower liver glycogen content, no change in IGF-I, and significantly higher increases in free fatty acid, glycerol, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and IGFBP-1. Maintenance of euglycemia during exercise in glucose-infused 50% fasted rats reduced to a large extent the decrease in insulin levels but only slightly attenuated the lipid response and the IGFBP-1 response seen in noninfused 50% fasted rats. Comparisons of all individual liver glycogen and IGFBP-1 values revealed that liver glycogen values were highly (P < 0.001) predictive of the IGFBP-1 response during exercise (R = 0.564). The present results indicate that the IGFBP-1 response during exercise is not always linked to a decrease in plasma glucose and suggest that the increase in IGFBP-1 during exercise may be related to the decrease in liver glycogen content. (+info)
Upregulated promitogenic signaling via cytokines and growth factors: potential mechanism of robust liver tissue repair in calorie-restricted rats upon toxic challenge.
Previously we reported that moderate calorie restriction or diet restriction (DR, calories reduced by 35% for 21 days) in male Sprague-Dawley rats protects from a lethal dose of thioacetamide (TA). DR rats had 70% survival compared with 10% in rats fed ad libitum (AL) because of timely and adequate compensatory liver cell division and tissue repair in the DR rats. Further investigation of the mechanisms indicate that enhanced promitogenic signaling plays a critical role in this stimulated tissue repair. Expression of stimulators of promitogenic signaling interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were studied during liver tissue repair after TA-induced liver injury. Plasma IL-6 was significantly higher in the DR rats, with 6-fold higher expression at 48 h after TA administration. Immunohistochemical localization revealed significantly higher expression of IL-6 in the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium of DR rats. Expression of TGF-alpha and HGF was consistently higher in the livers of DR rats from 36 to 72 h. EGFR, which serves as a receptor for TGF-alpha, was higher in DR rats before TA administration and remained higher till 48 h after TA intoxication. DR-induced 2-fold increase in hepatic iNOS activity is consistent with early cell division in DR rats after TA challenge. These data suggest that the reason behind the higher liver tissue repair after TA-induced hepatotoxicity in DR rats is timely and higher expression of the growth stimulatory cytokines and growth factors. It appears that the physiological effects of DR make the liver cells vigilant and prime the liver tissue promptly for liver regeneration through promitogenic signaling upon toxic challenge. (+info)
Chaperones come of age.
Chaperone function plays a key role in repairing proteotoxic damage, in the maintenance of cell architecture, and in cell survival. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about changes in chaperone expression and function in the aging process, as well as their involvement in longevity and cellular senescence. (+info)
High osmolarity extends life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a mechanism related to calorie restriction.
Calorie restriction (CR) extends life span in many different organisms, including mammals. We describe here a novel pathway that extends the life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mother cells but does not involve a reduction in caloric content of the media, i.e., there is growth of yeast cells in the presence of a high concentration of external osmolytes. Like CR, this longevity-promoting response to high osmolarity requires SIR2, suggesting a common mechanism of life span regulation. Genetic and microarray analysis indicates that high osmolarity extends the life span by activating Hog1p, leading to an increase in the biosynthesis of glycerol from glycolytic intermediates. This metabolic shift likely increases NAD levels, thereby activating Sir2p and promoting longevity. (+info)
Effect of low protein and low energy diet on physiological status and digestibility of F344 rats.
A long-term raising study was carried out on male F344/DuCrj rats with three low protein (Crude Protein (CP); 14.5, 11.5, 8.5%) and low energy (Digestible Energy (DE); 2.0 kcal/g) diets from 4 to 104 weeks of age. In rats fed the 8.5% CP diet, body weight and digestible crude protein (DCP) consumption at 10 weeks of age were lower (P < 0.05) but the body weight at 50 weeks of age was higher (P < 0.05) than in the other groups. In rats fed the 8.5% CP diet the crude fat digestibility was higher (P < 0.05), and the CP/nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) ratio was low. On the other hand, the mean survival time at 80 weeks of age was shorter in rats fed the 8.5% CP diet (P < 0.05). (+info)
Differentiation between obesity and insulin resistance in the association with C-reactive protein.
BACKGROUND: Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are increased in obese and/or hyperinsulinemic individuals. The goal of this study was to determine if the relation between insulin resistance and CRP was independent of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma CRP concentrations were measured before and after 3 months of calorie restriction in 38 healthy, obese women. Steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during a 180-minute infusion of octreotide, glucose, and insulin was used to stratify participants into insulin-resistant (IR, n=20) or insulin-sensitive (n=18) groups, similar in terms of mean age (46+/-2 versus 44+/-2 years), body mass index (32.0+/-0.4 versus 31.4+/-0.3 kg/m2), and waist circumference (96+/-2 versus 95+/-2 cm). Mean CRP (0.39+/-0.08 versus 0.12+/-0.03 mg/dL, P=0.003) concentrations were higher in the IR group, as were day-long plasma glucose and insulin responses (P<0.001). There was a significant correlation at baseline between CRP and day-long plasma integrated insulin response (r=0.47, P=0.001) but not between CRP and body mass index (r=0.14) or waist circumference (r=0.10). Weight loss was similar in the two groups (8.7+/-0.9 versus 8.4+/-0.8 kg) but was associated with significant (P<0.001) decreases in SSPG and CRP concentrations in the IR group only. Regression analysis showed that SSPG and day-long plasma insulin response were the only significant predictors of CRP concentration. CONCLUSIONS: CRP concentrations are elevated predominantly in obese individuals who are also insulin resistant and fall in parallel with weight loss-associated improvements in insulin resistance. The relation between CRP concentrations and insulin resistance is independent of obesity. (+info)
Lifelong caloric restriction increases expression of apoptosis repressor with a caspase recruitment domain (ARC) in the brain.
Aging may increase apoptotic events and the susceptibility of the central nervous system to apoptosis. Calorie restriction has been shown to have neuroprotective effects, but the mechanisms in vivo are unknown. We investigated apoptosis and apoptotic regulatory proteins in the brain frontal cortex of 12-month-old ad libitum fed, 26-month-old ad libitum fed, and 26-month-old calorie-restricted (CR) male Fischer 344 rats (CR = 40% restricted compared to ad libitum). We found that specific DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis was increased with age (+124%) in the cortices of the brain and that calorie restriction attenuated this increase significantly (-36%). We determined levels of ARC (apoptosis repressor with a caspase recruitment domain), which inhibits caspase-2 activity and also attenuates cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. We found a significant age-associated decline in ARC level, which was attenuated in the brains of the CR rats. In accordance with the changes in ARC expression observed, calorie restriction attenuated the increases in cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-2 activity with age and suppressed the age-associated rise in cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3. However, neither age nor calorie restriction had any effect on caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. This data provides evidence for an increased incidence of apoptosis in rat brain with age and evidence that calorie restriction has the ability to attenuate this. Furthermore, our data suggest that calorie restriction provides neuroprotection through ARC by suppressing cytochrome c release and caspase-2 activity. (+info)