Dacryolith formation around an eyelash retained in the lacrimal sac.
A dacryolith was discovered in the lacrimal sac during a dacryocystorhinostomy for chronic dacryocystitis in which there was mucocele formation. Morphological examination confirmed the presence of an eyelash at the centre of the stone and electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of fungi (Candida sp.) in a matrix which was of markedly vairable morphology. The mechanism by which a hair enters the punctum and passes along the canaliculus may be attributed to the step-like pattern of ridges on the surface of a hair. The directional nature of these ridges dictates preferential movement towards the root end of the hair and prevents movements in the opposite direction. (+info)
Long term follow up of patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic stones treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting reports as to whether pancreatic ductal drainage achieved by endoscopy and lithotripsy improves the clinical outcome of patients with chronic pancreatitis. AIMS: To determine the clinical outcome in patients with chronic pancreatitis who received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and were followed up for two to eight years. METHODS: Eighty patients with severe chronic pancreatitis and endoscopically unretrievable obstructive stones underwent ESWL with a piezoelectric lithotripter between 1989 and 1996. Clinical status, relief of symptoms, further endoscopic or surgical interventions, and mortality were defined. RESULTS: Forty three (54%) patients were treated successfully with ESWL. The only feature associated with treatment success was the presence of a single stone rather than multiple stones. Successfully treated patients tended to experience less pain, although this did not reach statistical significance. A slight increase in weight was noted in our patients; however, there was no notable improvement in anomalous stools and diabetes mellitus. Five patients died due to extrapancreatic reasons. No pancreatic carcinomas developed. CONCLUSIONS: ESWL associated with endoscopic drainage is a safe technique that is particularly successful in patients with a single stone. However, pancreatic drainage by endoscopy and ESWL has almost no effect on pain in chronic pancreatitis. Furthermore, endoscopic management and ESWL does not prevent or postpone the development of glandular insufficiency. (+info)
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: a rare familial inheritance with report of six cases in a family. Contribution of six new cases to the number of case reports in Turkey.
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a lung disease characterized by deposits of calcium within the alveoli. Our aim was to emphasize the familial character and the clinical features of the disease, and to draw attention to the increasing number of Turkish patients reported in the world. We detected 6 cases of PAM. Three cases had been diagnosed 4 years earlier, and 3 new cases were detected during the screening of the family members. All patients were male and the mean age was 11.5 ranging between 5 and 29 years. Five of the patients were cousins and the other one was their uncle. Radiographic studies showed a sand-like appearance in all patients. One case showed small subpleural bullae and bronchiectatic changes in both lower lobes in recent high-resolution CT scans, while his CT performed 4 years ago showed only sand-like appearance. The cases were diagnosed with the demonstration of microliths by bronchoalveolar lavage in 5 patients and transbronchial biopsy in 1. Recently reported cases from Turkey have constituted a considerable percentage among all cases in the world. In conclusion, (1) our patients constitute one of the largest series of cases reported in one family in the world. The disease seems to have familial and racial characteristics. The Turkish race has to be further investigated for genetic transmission. (2) Contrary to female predominance in previous reports, all 6 cases were male and 5 of them were below 12 years of age. (3) The disorder may show rapid progression in some cases probably due to the severity of the genetic disturbance. (+info)
Histochemical studies of pancreatic calculi.
Fourteen pancreatic calculi from the corresponding number of pancreatic lithiasis patients were examined mineralogically and histochemically. The following results were obtained. The main components of calculi were calcium carbonate in 13 of the 14 cases, and calcium phosphate in the remaining one. Calcium carbonate calculi were all so-called intraductal calculi, with acidic glycoprotein apparently enwrapping the component particles. Acidic glycoproteins acted to bridge calcium carbonate particles, as in the cases of gallstone and urinary stone. The calcium phosphate calculus had a histochemical feature of pathologic calcification with degenerated collagen fibrils as the matrix, suggesting the calcification of the fibrotic pancreatic parenchyma after pancreatitis. (+info)
Urinary stones following renal transplantation.
BACKGROUND: The formation of urinary tract stones following renal transplantation is a rare complication. The clinical features of stones after transplantation differ from those of non-transplant patients. Renal colic or pain is usually absent and rarely resembles acute rejection. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 849 consecutive kidney transplant patients in The Rogosin Institute/The Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York who were transplanted between 1980 and 1997 and had functioning grafts for more than 3 months, to determine the incidence of stone formation, composition, risk factors and patient outcome. RESULTS: At our center, urinary stones were diagnosed in 15 patients (1.8%) of 849 functioning renal grafts for 3 or more months. Of the 15 patients, 10 were males and 5 were females in their third and fourth decade. Eight patients received their transplant from living donors and 7 from cadaveric donors. The stones were first diagnosed between 3 and 109 months after transplantation (mean 17.8 months) and 5 patients had recurrent episodes. The stones were located in the bladder in 11 cases (73.3%), transplanted kidney in 3 cases and in multiple sites in one case. The size of stones varied from 3.4 mm to 40 mm (mean 12 mm). The composition of stones was a mixed form of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 5 cases and 4 patients had infected stones consisting of struvite or mixed form of struvite and calcium phosphate. Factors predisposing to stone formation included tertiary hyperparathyroidism (n = 8), hypercalciuria (n = 5), recurrent urinary tract infection (n = 5), hypocitraturia (n = 4), and obstructive uropathy (n = 2). Many cases had more than one risk factor. Clinically, painless hematuria was observed in 6 patients and dysuria without bacteriuria in 5 patients. None had renal colic or severe pain at any time. There were no changes in graft function at diagnosis and after removal of stones. Five patients passed stones spontaneously and 8 patients underwent cystoscopy for stone removal. CONCLUSION: Urinary stone formation following kidney transplantation is a rare complication (1.8%). Hyperparathyroidism, hypercalciuria, recurrent urinary tract infection and hypocitraturia are the most common risk factors, but often there are multiple factors which predispose to stone formation. To detect stones and determine their location and size, ultrasonography appears to be the most useful diagnostic tool. Prompt diagnosis, the removal of stones and stone-preventive measures can prevent adverse effects on renal graft outcome. (+info)
Radiological changes in pica.
The significance of pica and geophagia as a public health problem is well known. The objective radiographic diagnosis of geophagia depends on the abnormal opacification of the bowel as an immediate manifestitation of the condition. The chance of detectability of geophagia is highest in the colon and can be improved by using low penetration films, particularly for smaller amounts of ingested clay. Other radiologic changes frequently associated with the prolonged practice of geophagic are an atonic pattern of the colon, secondary radiographic changes due to iron-deficiency anemia and bone-age retardation. The occurrences of intestinal obstruction due to pica in the presence of preexisting bowel stricture is demonstrated. (+info)
Genetic susceptibility to fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes in Bangladeshi subjects: a family study.
Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) is an uncommon cause of diabetes, seen mainly in developing countries. A family-based study was carried out in 67 Bangladeshi families, consisting of a proband with FCPD and both parents, to determine whether an association exists between FCPD susceptibility and either the major histocompatiblity complex (MHC) or insulin gene (INS) loci. HLA-DQB1 typing was done using allele-specific primers, and INS was typed using the restriction enzyme HphI. Three microsatellites (TNFa, TNFc and TNFd), from within and flanking the TNF-LT locus, were used for MHC Class IV typing and a PCR-RFLP assay was used to define the -308G/A TNF promoter polymorphism. The extended transmission disequilibrium test (ETDT) was used for statistical analysis. An overall association was observed between FCPD and HLA-DQB1 (P = 0.003), that was largely due to a positive association with HLA-DQB1*0302 and a negative association with HLA-DQB1*0202. Although no association was found between FCPD and TNF-LT microsatellite markers a trend was observed for TNFc (P = 0.037, Pc = 0.15). No association was found between FCPD and INS (P = 0.26). This study confirms an association between FCPD and the MHC using a family-based study design and the stringent ETDT analysis; a novel protective association was found with HLA-DQB1*0202 in Bangladeshi FCPD subjects. The genetic susceptibility to FCPD has features both similar and dissimilar to T1DM. (+info)
Positional down beating nystagmus in 50 patients: cerebellar disorders and possible anterior semicircular canalithiasis.
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the clinical significance of positional down beat nystagmus (pDBN). METHODS: A discussion of the neuro-otological findings in 50 consecutive patients with pDBN. RESULTS: In 38 patients there was evidence of CNS disease (central group) but in 12 there was not (idiopathic group). In the CNS group, presenting symptoms were gait, speech, and autonomic dysfunction whereas in the idiopathic group patients mostly reported positional vertigo. The main neurological and oculomotor signs in the CNS group were explained by cerebellar dysfunction, including 13 patients with multiple system atrophy. In patients with multiple system atrophy with a prominent extrapyramidal component, the presence of pDBN was helpful in the differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonism. No patient with pDBN had the Arnold-Chiari malformation, a common cause of constant down beat nystagmus (DBN). In the idiopathic group, the pDBN had characteristics which suggested a peripheral labyrinthine disorder: vertigo, adaptation, and habituation. In six patients an additional torsional component was found (concurrently with the pDBN in three). Features unusual for peripheral disorder were: bilateral positive Dix-Hallpike manoeuvre in nine of 12 patients and selective provocation by the straight head-hanging manoeuvre in two. CONCLUSION: It is argued that some patients with idiopathic pDBN have benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) with lithiasis of the anterior canal. The torsional component may be weak, because of the predominantly sagittal orientation of the anterior canal, and may not be readily seen clinically. Nystagmus provocation by bilateral Dix-Hallpike and straight head-hanging may be explained by the vertical upwards orientation of the ampullary segment of the anterior canal in the normal upright head position. Such orientation makes right-left specificity with the Dix-Hallpike manoeuvre less important than for posterior canal BPPV. This orientation requires a further downwards movement of the head, often achieved with the straight head-hanging position, to provoke migration of the canaliths. The straight head-hanging manoeuvre should be carried out in all patients with a history of positional vertigo and a negative Dix-Hallpike manoeuvre. (+info)