Dietary calcium phosphate stimulates intestinal lactobacilli and decreases the severity of a salmonella infection in rats.
We have shown recently that dietary calcium phosphate (CaPi) has a trophic effect on the intestinal microflora and strongly protects against salmonella infection. It was speculated that precipitation by CaPi of intestinal surfactants, such as bile acids and fatty acids, reduced the cytotoxicity of intestinal contents and favored growth of the microflora. Because lactobacilli may have antagonistic activity against pathogens, the main purpose of the present study was to examine whether this CaPi-induced protection coincides with a reinforcement of the endogenous lactobacilli. In vitro, Salmonella enteritidis appeared to be insensitive to bile acids and fatty acids, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus was killed by physiologically relevant concentrations of these surfactants. Additionally, after adaptation to a purified diet differing only in CaPi concentration (20 and 180 mmol CaHPO4. 2H2O/kg), rats (n = 8) were orally infected with S. enteritidis. Besides reducing the cytotoxicity and the concentration of bile acids and fatty acids of ileal contents and fecal water, CaPi notably changed the composition of ileal bile acids in a less cell-damaging direction. Significantly greater numbers of ileal and fecal lactobacilli were detected in noninfected, CaPi-supplemented rats. As judged by the lower urinary NOx excretion, which is a biomarker of intestinal bacterial translocation, dietary CaPi reduced the invasion of salmonella. Additionally, the colonization resistance was improved considering the reduction of excreted fecal salmonella. In accordance, fewer viable salmonella were detected in ileal contents and on the ileal mucosa in the CaPi group. In conclusion, reducing the intestinal surfactant concentration by dietary CaPi strengthens the endogenous lactobacilli and increases the resistance to salmonella. (+info)
Intracellular calcium responses to basic calcium phosphate crystals in fibroblasts.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the intracellular calcium response to basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals in fibroblasts. DESIGN: In this study, intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i levels in fibroblasts were determined using the photoactive dye, fura-2. Interruption of these responses was accomplished by either removal of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium or addition of ammonium chloride that inhibits intracellular dissolution of BCP crystals by alkalinizing phagolysosomes. The effects of such interruptions on BCP induction expression of proto-oncogenes were demonstrated by the Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Addition of media containing BCP crystals yielded an immediate 10-fold rise of [Ca2+]i over the baseline level in human fibroblasts. This peak was derived mostly from extracellular calcium and was not seen when BCP crystals in calcium-free media were added to fibroblasts. The [Ca2+]i concentration returned to the baseline level within 8 min. A second rise of [Ca2+]i started at 60 min and continued to increase up to at least 3 h. This peak was derived from intracellular dissolution of phagocytosed crystals and almost completely inhibited by 10 mM ammonium chloride. CONCLUSION: The initial transient [Ca2+]i increase probably serves as a second messenger leading to activation of early cellular responses such as c-fos expression which is important in BCP crystal-induced mitogenesis. The second, slower and more sustained rise of [Ca2+]i probably initiates other cellular processes needed for fibroblast mitogenesis. (+info)
Calcium ions as efficient cofactor of polycation-mediated gene transfer.
We investigated the effect of calcium on the transfection of non-viral DNA transfer systems. Cationic proteins such as the nuclear protein H1, the polycation polylysine and a number of commercial transfection agents exhibited high transfection rates in the presence of Ca2+. Without Ca2+ H1 and HMG1 were inactive in transfection of the human permanent endothelial cell line ECV 304 while cationic liposomes such as Lipofectin and Lipofectamine did not show any Ca2+ dependence. More detailed experiments showed that Ca2+ was replaceable by the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine. Furthermore, it was possible to separate the transfection-enhancing role of Ca2+ from the actual transfection process by adding Ca2+ to the cells after the transfection period and still to obtain a significant transgene expression. This makes it possible to distinguish between cellular uptake of H1 (or mediator)-DNA complexes and endocytotic release. We also replaced soluble Ca2+ by Ca-phosphate precipitates not containing DNA and obtained similar transfection results. This allowed us to suggest that the addition of free Ca2+ to the transfection medium resulted in nascent Ca-phosphate microprecipitates. The known fusogenic and membranolytic activity of such microprecipitates could facilitate the transport through and the release of the transfecting complexes from the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. (+info)
Development of calcium phosphate cement for rapid crystallization to apatite.
The purpose of this study was to develop an alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) cement which transforms to hydroxyapatite (HAP) in a relatively short period. We used calcium and phosphate solutions as the liquid phase for the alpha-TCP cement. The alpha-TCP powder was first mixed with CaCl2 solution, and then mixed with NaH2PO4 or Na2HPO3 solution for a total powder/liquid ratio of 1.8. The setting time became shorter with the increase in the concentration of calcium and phosphate solutions, reaching 5 min, whereas the setting time was longer than 30 min when distilled water was used as the liquid phase. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the cement was mostly transformed to HAP within 24 h when kept in an incubator. We concluded that alpha-TCP should be mixed with calcium and phosphate solutions since this results in a moderate setting time and fast transformation to HAP even if the method of mixing becomes a little complex. (+info)
Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease.
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown that nephrolithiasis is more frequently found in hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects, but the pathogenic link between hypertension and stone disease is still not clear. METHODS: Between 1984 and 1991, we studied the baseline stone risk profile, including supersaturation of lithogenic salts, in 132 patients with stable essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure of more than 95 mm Hg) without stone disease and 135 normotensive subjects (diastolic blood pressure less than 85 mm Hg) without stone disease who were matched for age and sex (controls). Subsequently, both controls and hypertensives were followed up for at least five years to check on the eventual formation of kidney stones. RESULTS: Baseline urine levels in hypertensive males were different from that of normotensive males with regards to calcium (263 vs. 199 mg/day), magnesium (100 vs. 85 mg/day), uric acid (707 vs. 586 mg/day), and oxalate (34.8 vs. 26.5 mg/day). Moreover, the urine of hypertensive males was more supersaturated for calcium oxalate (8.9 vs. 6.1) and calcium phosphate (1.39 vs. 0.74). Baseline urine levels in hypertensive females were different from that of normotensive females with regards to calcium (212 vs. 154 mg/day), phosphorus (696 vs. 614 mg/day), and oxalate (26.2 vs. 21.7 mg/day), and the urine of hypertensive females was more supersaturated for calcium oxalate (7.1 vs. 4.8). These urinary alterations were only partially dependent on the greater body mass index in hypertensive patients. During the follow-up, 19 out of 132 hypertensive patients and 4 out of 135 normotensive patients had stone episodes (14.3 vs. 2.9%, chi-square 11.07, P = 0.001; odds ratio 5.5, 95% CI, 1.82 to 16.66). Of the 19 stone-former hypertensive patients, 12 formed calcium calculi, 5 formed uric acid calculi, and 2 formed nondetermined calculi. Of the urinary factors for lithogenous risk, those with the greatest predictive value were supersaturation of calcium oxalate for calcium calculi and uric acid supersaturation for uric acid calculi. CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of hypertensive subjects has a greater risk of renal stone formation, especially when hypertension is associated with excessive body weight. Higher oxaluria and calciuria as well as supersaturation of calcium oxalate and uric acid appear to be the most important factors. Excessive weight and consumption of salt and animal proteins may also play an important role. (+info)
Clinical and biochemical correlates of starting "daily" hemodialysis.
BACKGROUND: Daily hemodialysis has been proposed to improve outcomes for patients with end-stage renal disease. There has been increasing evidence that daily hemodialysis might have potential advantages over intermittent dialysis. However, despite these potential advantages, daily hemodialysis is infrequently used in the United States, and published accounts on the technique are few. METHODS: We describe patient outcomes after increasing their hemodialysis frequency from three to six times per week in a cohort of 72 patients treated at nine centers during 1972 to 1996. Analyses of predialysis blood pressure and laboratory parameters from 6 months before until 12 months after starting frequent hemodialysis used a repeated-measures statistical technique. RESULTS: Predialysis systolic and diastolic blood pressures fell by 7 and 4 mm Hg, respectively, after starting frequent hemodialysis (P = 0.02). Reductions were greatest among patients being treated with antihypertensive medications, despite a reduction in their dosage of medications. Postdialysis weight fell by 1.0% within one month of starting frequent hemodialysis and improved control of hypertension. After the initial drop, postdialysis weight increased at a rate of 0.85 kg per six months. Serum albumin rose by 0.29 g/dl (P < 0.001) between months 1 to 12 of treatment with daily hemodialysis. Hematocrit rose by 3.0 percentage points (P = 0.02) among patients (N = 56) not treated with erythropoietin during this period. Two years after the start of daily hemodialysis, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed a patient survival of 93%, a technique survival of 77%, and an arteriovenous fistula patency of 92%. Vascular access patency was excellent despite more frequent use of the access. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that in certain patients, daily hemodialysis might have advantages over three times per week hemodialysis. (+info)
Method of transfection affects the cAMP-mediated induction of the RIIbeta subunit of protein kinase A in Sertoli cells: inhibition of response by increase in intracellullar calcium.
mRNA for the regulatory subunit RIIbeta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is stimulated more than 50-fold by cAMP in primary cultures of rat Sertoli cells. We have previously shown that this induction involves regulation of transcriptional activation as well as mRNA stabilization. The rat RIIbeta gene contains no cAMP response element (CRE), and the induction of RIIbeta mRNA is slow and requires on-going protein synthesis. When a construct containing the 5'-flanking region of the RIIbeta gene upstream of a CAT reporter was transfected into Sertoli cells by the calcium phosphate method, low and variable responses to cAMP (three- to fivefold) were observed, whereas a 15- to 20-fold increase in reporter activity by cAMP was observed after lipofectamine transfection. Interestingly, when a vector containing CRE elements upstream of a reporter gene was transfected into Sertoli cells, the responses to cAMP were similar regardless of the transfection method used. We have also demonstrated that increased intracellular levels of calcium by A23187 and thapsigargin dramatically inhibit cAMP-mediated induction of RIIbeta mRNA, but not the mRNA for the CRE-containing RIalpha gene. Furthermore, decreased cAMP responsiveness of endogenous RIIbetamRNA (but not RIalpha) was also observed in calcium phosphate-transfected Sertoli cells but not in lipofectamine-transfected cells. Thus, calcium-mediated reduction in cAMP response appears to be a gene-specific phenomenon. (+info)
Implanted octacalcium phosphate (OCP) stimulates osteogenesis by osteoblastic cells and/or committed osteoprogenitors in rat calvarial periosteum.
Our previous studies demonstrated that the octacalcium phosphate (OCP) causes new appositional bone formation on the OCP when implanted into the subperiosteal region of murine calvaria. The OCP may stimulate the cell population committed to the osteoblastic differentiation in the periosteum and have them express the phenotype. The present study was designed to investigate which periosteal cell population is involved in bone formation on the OCP with applying the OCP implants on top of and underneath the periosteum. The periosteum of the rat parietal bones was flapped and the OCP was implanted on top of or underneath the periosteum, in which the implantation sites were defined using the membrane filter. The histology was examined to see if new appositional bone formation occurs on the OCP implant under each condition. New bone was deposited on the OCP on the bone surface separated from the periosteum by the filter, whereas no bone was formed either under the periosteum separated from the bone surface by the filter or on the periosteum. The present study suggests that the OCP acts on osteoblasts, bone lining cells and/or their closely committed progenitors on the bone surface to express the phenotype and deposit new bone on the OCP implant. (+info)