Effects of high compared with low calcium intake on calcium absorption and incorporation of iron by red blood cells in small children.
BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of increasing calcium intake in small children must be balanced with the potential risk to iron utilization from high calcium intakes. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the relation between calcium intake and calcium absorption and iron incorporation into red blood cells. DESIGN: We performed a multitracer, crossover study of the absorption of calcium and red blood cell incorporation of iron in 11 preschool children aged 3-5 y who had been adapted for 5 wk to low- (502 +/- 99 mg) and high- (1180 +/- 117 mg) calcium diets. Stable-isotope studies were performed by using 44Ca and 58Fe given orally with meals and 46Ca given intravenously. RESULTS: Iron incorporation into red blood cells 14 d postdosing was similar (6.9 +/- 4.2% compared with 7.9 +/- 5.5%; NS) with the low- and high-calcium diets, respectively. Total calcium absorption (181 +/- 50 compared with 277 +/- 91 mg/d; P = 0.002) was greater in children with the higher calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that small children may benefit from calcium intakes similar to those recommended for older children without adverse effects on dietary iron utilization. (+info)
Characterization of prostanoid receptors in podocytes.
Prostaglandins participate in the regulation of important glomerular functions and are involved in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases. This study investigates the influence of prostaglandins on membrane voltage, ion conductances, cAMP accumulation, and cytosolic calcium activity ([Ca2+]i) in differentiated podocytes. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) caused a concentration-dependent depolarization and an increase of the whole cell conductance in podocytes (EC50 approximately 50 nM). Compared with PGE2, the EP2/EP3/EP4 receptor agonist 11-deoxy-PGE1 caused an equipotent depolarization, whereas the DP receptor agonist BW 245 C, the EP1/EP3 receptor agonist sulprostone, and the IP receptor agonist iloprost were at least 100 to 1000 times less potent than PGE2. The EP2 receptor agonist butaprost did not change membrane voltage of podocytes. The depolarizing effect of PGE2 was increased in an extracellular solution with a reduced Cl- concentration (from 145 to 32 mM). PGE2 and the prostaglandin agonists, but not the IP receptor agonist iloprost and the EP2 receptor agonist butaprost, induced a time- and concentration-dependent cAMP accumulation in podocytes. In fura-2 fluorescence experiments, PGE2, sulprostone, PGF2alpha, fluprostenol (a potent FP agonist), and U-46619 (a selective thromboxane A2 agonist) induced a biphasic increase of [Ca2+]i in 60 to 80% of podocytes. In reverse transcription-PCR studies, podocyte mRNA for the EP1, EP4, FP, and TP receptor could be amplified. These data indicate that in podocytes, PGE2 regulates distinct cellular functions via the EP1 and EP4 receptor, thereby increasing [Ca2+]i and cAMP, respectively. Furthermore, PGF1alpha and U-46619 increase [Ca2+]i via their specific receptors. (+info)
Calcium isotope fractionation between soft and mineralized tissues as a monitor of calcium use in vertebrates.
Calcium from bone and shell is isotopically lighter than calcium of soft tissue from the same organism and isotopically lighter than source (dietary) calcium. When measured as the (44)Ca/(40)Ca isotopic ratio, the total range of variation observed is 5.5 per thousand, and as much as 4 per thousand variation is found in a single organism. The observed intraorganismal calcium isotopic variations and the isotopic differences between tissues and diet indicate that isotopic fractionation occurs mainly as a result of mineralization. Soft tissue calcium becomes heavier or lighter than source calcium during periods when there is net gain or loss of mineral mass, respectively. These results suggest that variations of natural calcium isotope ratios in tissues may be useful for assessing the calcium and mineral balance of organisms without introducing isotopic tracers. (+info)
Isotopic evidence for variations in the marine calcium cycle over the Cenozoic.
Significant variations in the isotopic composition of marine calcium have occurred over the last 80 million years. These variations reflect deviations in the balance between inputs of calcium to the ocean from weathering and outputs due to carbonate sedimentation, processes that are important in controlling the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and, hence, global climate. The calcium isotopic ratio of paleo-seawater is an indicator of past changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide when coupled with determinations of paleo-pH. (+info)
High bioavailability of calcium in fortified Horlicks.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the bioavailability of calcium carbonate-fortified Horlicks with calcium naturally present in milk. DESIGN: Randomised crossover within-subject comparison using a double label stable isotope technique. SETTING: Institute of Food Research, Human Nutrition Unit. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen pre-menopausal women aged 23-40 y, habituated to a high-calcium diet (mean 1240 mg/day). RESULTS: Mean true fractional calcium absorption was 38.8% (s.d.+/-14.5) from Horlicks and 21.2% (s.d.+/-4.6) from milk. Significantly more calcium was absorbed from a serving of Horlicks than from the same quantity of calcium present in 420 g semi-skimmed milk (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Fortified Horlicks is a highly bioavailable source of calcium. A single serving, containing at least 500 mg calcium, provides half the reference nutrient intake for the population sub-group with the highest requirement (adolescent boys) and more than half for all others. SPONSORSHIP: SmithKline Beecham funded this research project. (+info)
Calcium absorption measured by stable calcium isotopes ((42)Ca & (44)Ca) among Northern Chinese adolescents with low vitamin D status.
An adequate calcium intake and vitamin-D status is important for bone mineralization in adolescents. In Northern China, calcium intake and plasma vitamin-D level of adolescents is low due to low consumption of dairy foods and inadequate sunshine exposure. True fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) in Chinese adolescents has never been performed. This study aims to evaluate nutritional adaptation namely, TFCA and urinary calcium excretion among Chinese adolescents in northern China. (+info)
Overview of the 7th European symposium on calcium-binding proteins in normal and transformed cells.
The strong feature of the meeting was the continuing efforts described in many papers to resolve the multiple ways in which calcium ions are released into cells via messenger signals and then interact with receptors to cause differential internal cellular activation and cell/cell communication. An easy general way to relate these studies to cell components is to start analysis from the genetic structures lying behind all cell activities and then to explore the RNA production, the proteome, the small substrates and calcium levels themselves in turn while referring to the environment of a particular cell, organ or organism. There is then of course the overall physiology. I shall summarize the papers in this order of their main interests. (+info)
A novel dual radio- and stable-isotope method for measuring calcium absorption in humans: comparison with the whole-body radioisotope retention method.
BACKGROUND: Dietary calcium absorption can be determined only with the use of isotope techniques. Currently used isotope techniques require exclusive equipment or are not true tracer approaches. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare a dual-isotope method combining radioisotopes and stable isotopes with a whole-body radioisotope retention method for measuring calcium absorption. DESIGN: Seven healthy adults aged 21-27 y consumed a test meal containing 63 +/- 14 (macro x +/- SD) mg Ca together with a water solution of (47)Ca (0.11 MBq). One hour after ingestion, 18 mg (44)Ca was administered intravenously. All feces and urine were collected for 5 and 6 d, respectively. Calcium absorption was estimated from whole-body retention of the radioisotope 12 times over 3 wk after ingestion and from the excretion of (47)Ca and (44)Ca in a 24-h urine sample collected on day 2. (44)Ca in urine was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Mean (+/- SD) calcium absorption was 75 +/- 9% with the dual-isotope method and was 74 +/- 8% with the whole-body radioisotope retention method. There was a high degree of agreement between the methods. CONCLUSION: The dual-isotope method is a valid approach for measuring calcium absorption from a single meal. (+info)