Vital pulp capping: a worthwhile procedure.
Despite the progress made in the field of pulp biology, the technique and philosophy of direct vital pulp capping remains a controversial subject. Clinicians are well aware of the immediate and long-term success rates after root canal therapy, but are less certain of the success of vital pulp capping. Researchers have demonstrated that exposed pulps will heal and form reparative dentin. It is realized now that the variable prognosis of vital pulp capping is predominately a restorative issue. The factors that can produce a successful vital pulp cap are discussed in conjunction with two popular techniques. (+info)
Amsorb: a new carbon dioxide absorbent for use in anesthetic breathing systems.
BACKGROUND: This article describes a carbon dioxide absorbent for use in anesthesia. The absorbent consists of calcium hydroxide with a compatible humectant, namely, calcium chloride. The absorbent mixture does not contain sodium or potassium hydroxide but includes two setting agents (calcium sulphate and polyvinylpyrrolidine) to improve hardness and porosity. METHODS: The resultant mixture was formulated and subjected to standardized tests for hardness, porosity, and carbon dioxide absorption. Additionally, the new absorbent was exposed in vitro to sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, and enflurane to determine whether these anesthetics were degraded to either compound A or carbon monoxide. The performance data and inertness of the absorbent were compared with two currently available brands of soda lime: Intersorb (Intersurgical Ltd., Berkshire, United Kingdom) and Dragersorb (Drager, Lubeck, Germany). RESULTS: The new carbon dioxide absorbent conformed to United States Pharmacopeia specifications in terms of carbon dioxide absorption, granule hardness, and porosity. When the new material was exposed to sevoflurane (2%) in oxygen at a flow rate of 1 l/min, concentrations of compound A did not increase above those found in the parent drug (1.3-3.3 ppm). In the same experiment, mean +/-SD concentrations of compound A (32.5 +/- 4.5 ppm) were observed when both traditional brands of soda lime were used. After dehydration of the traditional soda limes, immediate exposure to desflurane (60%), enflurane (2%), and isoflurane (2%) produced concentrations of carbon monoxide of 600.0 +/- 10.0 ppm, 580.0 +/- 9.8 ppm, and 620.0 +/-10.1 ppm, respectively. In contrast, concentrations of carbon monoxide were negligible (1-3 ppm) when the anhydrous new absorbent was exposed to the same anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS: The new material is an effective carbon dioxide absorbent and is chemically unreactive with sevoflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane. (+info)
Soda-lime dust contamination of breathing circuits.
A case report of soda-lime dust contamination of the breathing circuit of an anesthesia machine causing bronchospasm in a patient is presented. Various factors in absorber design and increased dusting of soda lime due to high-flow techniques and lack of wetting are described. A modification of the Fraser-Sweatman absorber leading the fresh gas into an area free of dust accumulation has resulted in near-complete elimination of the problem. (+info)
Lack of degradation of sevoflurane by a new carbon dioxide absorbent in humans.
BACKGROUND: Potent inhaled anesthetics degrade in the presence of the strong bases (sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) in carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbents. A new absorbent, Amsorb (Armstrong Medical Ltd., Coleraine, Northern Ireland), does not employ these strong bases. This study compared the scavenging efficacy and compound A production of two commercially available absorbents (soda lime and barium hydroxide lime) with Amsorb in humans undergoing general anesthesia. METHODS: Four healthy volunteers were anesthetized on different days with desflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and isoflurane. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and anesthetic concentrations were measured with infrared spectroscopy; blood pressure and arterial blood gases were obtained from a radial artery catheter. Each anesthetic exposure lasted 3 h, during which the three fresh (normally hydrated) CO2 absorbents were used for a period of 1 h each. Anesthesia was administered with a fresh gas flow rate of 2 l/min of air:oxygen (50:50). Tidal volume was 10 ml/kg; respiratory rate was 8 breaths/min. Arterial blood gases were obtained at baseline and after each hour. Inspired concentrations of compound A were measured after 15, 30, and 60 min of anesthetic administration for each CO2 absorbent. RESULTS: Arterial blood gases and ETCO2 were not different among three CO2 absorbents. During sevoflurane, compound A formed with barium hydroxide lime and soda lime, but not with Amsorb. CONCLUSIONS: This new CO2 absorbent effectively scavenged CO2 and was not associated with compound A production. (+info)
Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats.
Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined. (+info)
Comparison of Amsorb, sodalime, and Baralyme degradation of volatile anesthetics and formation of carbon monoxide and compound a in swine in vivo.
BACKGROUND: Consequences of volatile anesthetic degradation by carbon dioxide absorbents that contain strong base include formation of compound A from sevoflurane, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and CO toxicity from desflurane, enflurane and isoflurane, delayed inhalation induction, and increased anesthetic costs. Amsorb (Armstrong Ltd., Coleraine, Northern Ireland) is a new absorbent that does not contain strong base and does not form CO or compound A in vitro. This investigation compared Amsorb, Baralyme (Chemetron Medical Division, Allied Healthcare Products, St. Louis, MO), and sodalime effects on CO (from desflurane and isoflurane) and compound A formation, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentrations, and anesthetic degradation in a clinically relevant porcine in vivo model. METHODS: Pigs were anesthetized with desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane, using fresh or partially dehydrated Amsorb, Baralyme, and new and old formulations of sodalime. Anesthetic concentrations in the fresh (preabsorber), inspired (postabsorber), and end-tidal gas were measured, as were inspired CO and compound A concentrations and blood oxyhemoglobin and COHb concentrations. RESULTS: For desflurane and isoflurane, the order of inspired CO and COHb formation was dehydrated Baralyme >> soda-lime > Amsorb. For desflurane and Baralyme, peak CO was 9,700 +/- 5,100 parts per million (ppm), and the increase in COHb was 37 +/- 14%. CO and COHb increases were undetectable with Amsorb. Oxyhemoglobin desaturation occurred with desflurane and Baralyme but not Amsorb or sodalime. The gap between inspired and end-tidal desflurane and isoflurane did not differ between the various dehydrated absorbents. Neither fresh nor dehydrated Amsorb caused compound A formation from sevoflurane. In contrast, Baralyme and sodalime caused 20-40 ppm compound A. The gap between inspired and end-tidal sevoflurane did not differ between fresh absorbents, but was Amsorb < sodalime < Baralyme with dehydrated absorbents. CONCLUSION: Amsorb caused minimal if any CO formation, minimal compound A formation regardless of absorbent hydration, and the least amount of sevoflurane degradation. An absorbent like Amsorb, which does not contain strong base or cause anesthetic degradation and formation of toxic products, may have benefit with respect to patient safety, inhalation induction, and anesthetic consumption (cost). (+info)
Using amsorb to detect dehydration of CO2 absorbents containing strong base.
BACKGROUND: Because Amsorb changes color when it dries, the authors investigated whether Amsorb combined with different strong base-containing carbon dioxide absorbents signals dehydration of such absorbents. METHODS: Five different carbon dioxide absorbents (1,330 g) each topped with 70 g of Amsorb were dried in an anesthesia machine (Modulus CD, Datex-Ohmeda, Madison, WI) with oxygen (Amsorb layer at the fresh gas inflow site). As soon as a color change was detected in the Amsorb, the authors tested the samples for a change in weight and carbon monoxide formation from 7.5% desflurane or 4% isoflurane. In a different experiment with the five absorbents, Amsorb was layered at the drying gas outflow site. In further experiments, the authors tested for a color change in Amsorb from drying and rehydrating and from drying with nitrogen. Finally, they dried a mixture of Amsorb and 1% NaOH and examined it for color change. RESULTS: In the experiments with Amsorb layered at the inflow, the Amsorb changed color when the water content of the samples was only marginally reduced (to a mean 13.6%), and no carbon monoxide formed. With Amsorb layered at the outflow, it changed color when the mean water content of the samples was reduced to 8.8%, and carbon monoxide formation was detected to varying degrees. The color change was independent of the drying gas and could be reversed by rehydrating. Adding NaOH to Amsorb prevented a color change. CONCLUSIONS: Dehydration in strong base-containing absorbents can reliably be indicated before carbon monoxide is formed when Amsorb is layered at the fresh gas inflow. The authors assume that the indicator dye in Amsorb changes color on drying because of the absence of strong base in this absorbent. (+info)
Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Sealapex, AH Plus or Sealer Plus for sealing. After 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. The groups filled with Sealapex and AH Plus had better histological repair (p < 0.05) than the group filled with Sealer Plus, that had unsatisfactory results. (+info)