Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.
Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG. (+info)
Dietary magnesium, not calcium, regulates renal thiazide receptor.
This study reports for the first time a relationship between dietary Mg and the renal thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (TZR, measured by saturation binding with 3H-metolazone). Ion-selective electrodes measured plasma ionized magnesium (PMg++), calcium (PCa++), and potassium (PK+). Restricting dietary Mg for 1 wk decreased PMg++ 18%, TZR 25%, and renal excretion of magnesium (UMg) and calcium (UCa) more than 50% without changing PCa++, PK+, or plasma aldosterone. A low Mg diet for 1 d significantly decreased PMg++, TZR, UMg and UCa. Return of dietary Mg after 5 d of Mg restriction restored PMg++ and TZR toward normal. In the control, Mg-deficient, and Mg-repleting animals, TZR correlated with PMg++ (r = 0.86) and with UMg (r = 0.87) but not UCa (r = 0.09). Increasing oral intake of Mg for 1 wk increased PMg++ 14%, TZR 32%, UMg 74%, and UCa more than fourfold without changing PCa++ or PK+. In contrast, increasing dietary Ca content from 0.02% to 1.91% did not change TZR, but increased UCa fivefold without changing PCa++. Hormonal mediators (if any) involved in the relationship between dietary Mg and TZR remain to be elucidated, as does the relationship between TZR and tubular reabsorption of Mg. (+info)
Dietary soybeans intake and bone mineral density among 995 middle-aged women in Yokohama.
To investigate relationship of dietary factors, especially source of calcium intake, to bone mineral density (BMD) among Japanese middle-aged women, a total of 995 healthy women age of 40 to 49 (mean +/- SD, 45 +/- 3), who lives in Yokohama-city, were recruited through convenience sampling by the municipal information paper and health announcement at each 18 public health center in 18 wards for the three-day course on prevention of osteoporosis from October 1996 to March 1998. The BMD of the 2nd metacarpal bone was measured using Computed X-ray Densitometry (CXD) method, by a trained radiologist. Dietary intake of calcium was assessed by self-reporting food frequency questionnaire on calcium dietary sources such as milk, dairy products, small fish, vegetables, and soybeans and carefully checked by trained dietician. An independent gradient of non-adjusted and adjusted BMD for age and weekly calcium intake, through soybeans intake frequency (p = 0.03) was noted. This study suggest soybeans, through possible beneficial effects of vitamin-K, soyprotein, and isoflavonoid, may affect BMD of middle aged women. (+info)
Taking a nutrition history: a practical approach for family physicians.
The association between nutrition and health has been clearly documented. Primary care physicians are expected to address nutrition and dietary behavior issues with their patients in the context of a brief clinical encounter. This article proposes the use of a short interview form, with specific suggestions for behavior changes that family physicians can use to help their patients meet currently accepted dietary guidelines. Answers to the questions on the interview form provide the physician with an overall sense of the patient's daily eating habits and help to identify major sources of saturated fat in the patient's diet. The patient is asked about the number of meals and snacks eaten in a 24-hour period, dining-out habits and frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry, fish, dairy products and desserts. Documentation of dietary changes can be accomplished using the suggested nutrition history form, and improvements in nutritional status can be measured using weight, blood pressure and laboratory test data. (+info)
Calcium intake is weakly but consistently negatively associated with iron status in girls and women in six European countries.
Several studies indicate that intake of calcium can inhibit iron absorption especially when taken simultaneously. In the CALEUR study, a cross-sectional study among girls (mean 13.5 y) and young women (mean 22.0 y) in six European countries, the association between calcium intake and iron status was studied. In 1,080 girls and 524 women, detailed information on calcium intake was collected by means of a 3-d food record, and serum ferritin, serum iron, serum transferrin and transferrin saturation were measured as indicators of iron status. The mean levels of serum iron, ferritin and transferrin were 15.8 +/- 6.1 mmol/L, 34.5 +/- 19.1 microg/L and 3. 47 +/- 0.47 g/L, respectively, in girls and 16.9 +/- 7.5 mmol/L, 40. 2 +/- 30.5 and microg/L, 3.59 +/- 0.60 g/L, respectively, in women. A consistent inverse association between calcium intake and serum ferritin was found, after adjusting the linear regression model for iron intake, age, menarche, protein, tea and vitamin C intake and country, irrespective of whether calcium was ingested simultaneously with iron. The adjusted overall regression coefficients for girls and women were -0.57 +/- 0.20 and -1.36 +/- 0.46 per 100 mg/d increase in calcium intake, respectively. Only in girls, transferrin saturation as a measure for short-term iron status was inversely associated with calcium intake (adjusted overall coefficient -0.18 +/- 0.08). However, analysis per country separately showed no consistency. We conclude that dietary calcium intake is weakly inversely associated with blood iron status, irrespective of whether calcium was ingested simultaneously with iron. (+info)
Excessive Ca and P intake during early maturation in dogs alters Ca and P balance without long-term effects after dietary normalization.
Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) balance is important for skeletal development. Although the effects of deficiencies are well known, reports on the effects of excessive Ca and P supply are relatively scarce. Epidemiologic data and a few controlled studies have shown that skeletal abnormalities may develop when Ca intake is excessive, particularly in periods of rapid growth. Changes in Ca and P balance during and/or after a high Ca intake are thought to underlie this phenomenon. In this study, the effects of excessive Ca (3.1 g/kg dry matter) or Ca and P (Ca 3.1 g/kg, P 2.8 g/kg) intake on Ca and P balance in young, rapidly growing dogs during (for the period from 3 to 17 wk of age) and after (for the period from 17 to 27 wk of age) high Ca and P intake were compared with findings in age-matched controls with normal Ca and P intakes (Ca 1.0 g/kg, P 0.8 g/kg). Dogs fed a high Ca diet developed hypercalcemia, and food intake and fractional absorption of Ca and P were significantly lower at 15 wk of age, whereas endogenous fecal and renal Ca excretion were significantly higher than in controls. This resulted in significantly higher Ca retention than in controls only at 9 wk of age, and in disproportionate absorption of Ca and P. In dogs fed a high Ca and P diet, normocalcemia was maintained, fractional absorption of Ca and P were significantly lower at 9 and 15 wk of age, but retention of both was significantly higher at 9 wk than in controls. The endogenous fecal Ca and renal P losses were significantly higher, but renal Ca excretion was not different from that in controls. After normalization of Ca and P intake, Ca and P balance did not differ among groups. In conclusion, excessive Ca and P intake during early maturation alters Ca and P balance, but does not influence Ca and P balance after dietary normalization. (+info)
Morphometric evidence that YM175, a bisphosphonate, reduces trabecular bone resorption in ovariectomized dogs with dietary calcium restriction.
We examined mechanisms by which incadronate disodium (YM175) prevented bone resorption in ovariectomized dogs with dietary calcium restriction using the morphometrical method. YM175 (0.01-1.0 mg/kg) was given to ovariectomized dogs for 18 months. Because lumbar bone mineral density remained constant at month 17, we assumed that the trabecular bone resorption rate was equal to the bone formation rate and that wall thickness equaled resorption cavity depth. YM175 decreased both the bone resorption rate per number of osteoclasts and resorption cavity depth of cancellous pockets which were increased in ovariectomized dogs. These results suggest that YM175 reduces bone loss by decreasing the resorbing activity of osteoclasts. (+info)
Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 6. Recommendations on potassium, magnesium and calcium. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.
OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations on the consumption, through diet, and supplementation of the cations potassium, magnesium and calcium for the prevention and treatment of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women). OPTIONS: Dietary supplementation with cations has been suggested as an alternative or adjunctive therapy to antihypertensive medications. Other options include other nonpharmacologic treatments for hypertension. OUTCOMES: The health outcomes considered were changes in blood pressure and in morbidity and mortality rates. Because of insufficient evidence, no economic outcomes were considered. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period 1966-1996 with the terms hypertension and potassium, magnesium and calcium. Reports of trials, meta-analyses and review articles were obtained. Other relevant evidence was obtained from the reference lists of articles identified, from the personal files of the authors and through contacts with experts. The articles were reviewed, classified according to study design, and graded according to the level of evidence. VALUES: A high value was placed on the avoidance of cardiovascular morbidity and premature death caused by untreated hypertension. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The weight of the evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates that increasing intake of or supplementing the diet with potassium, magnesium or calcium is not associated with prevention of hypertension, nor is it effective in reducing high blood pressure. Potassium supplementation may be effective in reducing blood pressure in patients with hypokalemia during diuretic therapy. RECOMMENDATIONS: For the prevention of hypertension, the following recommendations are made: (1) The daily dietary intake of potassium should be 60 mmol or more, because this level of intake has been associated with a reduced risk of stroke-related mortality. (2) For normotensive people obtaining on average 60 mmol of potassium daily through dietary intake, potassium supplementation is not recommended as a means of preventing an increase in blood pressure. (3) For normotensive people, magnesium supplementation is not recommended as a means of preventing an increase in blood pressure. (4) For normotensive people, calcium supplementation above the recommended daily intake is not recommended as a means of preventing an increase in blood pressure. For the treatment of hypertension, the following recommendations are made. (5) Potassium supplementation above the recommended daily dietary intake of 60 mmol is not recommended as a treatment for hypertension. (6) Magnesium supplementation is not recommended as a treatment for hypertension. (7) Calcium supplementation above the recommended daily dietary intake is not recommended as a treatment for hypertension. VALIDATION: These guidelines are consistent with the results of meta-analyses and recommendations made by other organizations. They have not been clinically tested. SPONSORS: The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. (+info)