In vitro antiviral activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and its related flavonoids.
The aim of this study was to search for new antiviral agents from Chinese herbal medicine. Pure flavonoids and aqueous extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz were used in experiments to test their influence on a series of viruses, namely herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2) and adenoviruses (ADV-3, ADV-8, ADV-11). The EC50 was defined as the concentration required to achieve 50% protection against virus-induced cytopathic effects, and the selectivity index (SI) was determined as the ratio of CC50 (concentration of 50% cellular cytotoxicity) to EC50. Results showed that aqueous extracts of C. pulcherrima and its related quercetin possessed a broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Among them, the strongest activities against ADV-8 were fruit and seed (EC50 = 41.2 mg/l, SI = 83.2), stem and leaf (EC50 = 61.8 mg/l, SI = 52.1) and flower (EC50 = 177.9 mg/l, SI = 15.5), whereas quercetin possessed the strongest anti-ADV-3 activity (EC50 = 24.3 mg/l, SI = 20.4). In conclusion, some compounds of C. pulcherrima which possess antiviral activities may be derived from the flavonoid of quercetin. The mode of action of quercetin against HSV-1 and ADV-3 was found to be at the early stage of multiplication and with SI values greater than 20, suggesting the potential use of this compound for treatment of the infection caused by these two viruses. (+info)
A new furanoid diterpene from Caesalpinia pulcherrima.
A new cassane-type diterpene isovouacapenol E (1) was isolated from the leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, together with the known compounds caesaldekarin A (3), spathulenol (4), caryophyllene oxide (5), phytol, and sitosterol. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectral data interpretation. (+info)
Antioxidant activity of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood.
Antioxidant activity of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was studied both by in vitro and in vivo models. The ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity as evidenced by the low IC50 values in both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide methods. The values were found to be less or comparable to those of ascorbic acid and rutin, the standards used. Administration of the successive methanol and water extracts at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight given for four days prior to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment caused a significant increase in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and a significant decrease in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), when compared to CCl4 treated control in both liver and kidney. These changes observed at 100 mg/kg body weight treatment were comparable to those observed for standard vitamin E at 50 mg/kg treatment. The results support significant antioxidant nature of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extracts. (+info)
Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Caesalpinia bonducella against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.
The methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves (MECB) were evaluated for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The extract was administered at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days after 24 h of tumor inoculation. After the last dose and 18 h fasting, the mice were sacrificed. The present study deals with the effect of MECB on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological profile, and biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. MECB caused significant (P<0.01) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume, and viable cell count; and it prolonged the life span of EAC-tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile converted to more or less normal levels in extract-treated mice. MECB significantly (P<0.05) decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. The MECB was found to be devoid of conspicuous short-term toxicity in the mice when administered daily (i.p.) for 14 days at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. The treated mice showed conspicuous toxic symptoms only at 300 mg/kg. The results indicate that MECB exhibited significant antitumor and antioxidant activity in EAC-bearing mice. (+info)
Effects of ellagic acid and 2-(2,3,6-trihydroxy-4-carboxyphenyl)ellagic acid on sorbitol accumulation in vitro and in vivo.
Caesalpinia ferrea MART. (Leguminosae) called as Juca is one of the medicinal plants in Brazil used for diabetes. From the fruits of this plant, ellagic acid (EA) and 2-(2,3,6-trihydroxy-4-carboxyphenyl)ellagic acid (TEA) have been recently isolated as aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors. In this study, we examined to prove the inhibitory activity against AR of EA and TEA in vitro, and EA in vivo by measurement of the accumulation of sorbitol, which is the product of glucose reduction catalyzed by AR. TEA was not examined in vivo because of its shortage of yield from the fruits. EA and TEA significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in erythrocytes, lens and sciatic nerve under incubating with glucose in vitro. EA at a dose of 75 mg/kg/d showed the most potent inhibition of sorbitol accumulation in erythrocytes, lens and sciatic nerve at 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg/d in vivo. These results suggest that the inhibitory activity of EA against AR causes to inhibit sorbitol accumulation by in vitro and in vivo experiments. EA is distributed in fruits and vegetables, so that taking them might be able to relieve diabetic complications. (+info)
New cassane-type diterpenes of Caesalpinia crista from Myanmar.
Seven new cassane-type diterpenes, caesalpinin MF-ML (1-7), and a new norcassane-type diterpene, norcaesalpinin MD (8), have been isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of seed kernels of Caesalpinia crista from Myanmar, together with sixteen known cassane-type diterpenes, 7-acetoxybonducellpin C, caesaldekarin e, caesalmin C, caesalmin G, 2-acetoxycaesaldekarin e, zeta-caesalpin, caesalpinin D, caesalpinin E, caesalpinin F, caesalpinin H, caesalpinin I, caesalpinin J, caesalpinin K, caesalpinin M, caesalpinin N, and caesalpinin O. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by the use of spectroscopic techniques. (+info)
Caesaldecan, a cassane diterpenoid from the leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala.
A new cassane diterpenoid, caesaldecan, was isolated from Caesalpinia decapetala with eight known compounds, spathulenol, 4,5-epoxy-8(14)-caryophyllene, squalene, lupeol, trans-resveratrol, quercetin, astragalin, and stigmasterol. The (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra of the new compound were completely assigned by using a combination of 2D NMR techniques, namely, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and ROESY. (+info)
The isolation and structure elucidation of new cassane diterpene-acids from Caesalpinia crista L. (Fabaceae), and review on the nomenclature of some Caesalpinia species.
New cassane diterpene-acids, neocaesalpins H and I, were isolated from the leaves of Caesalpinia crista (Fabaceae), and their structures were deduced on the basis of the spectroscopic and chemical basis. These compounds were characterized as having an alpha,beta-butenolide hemiacetal ring that is rare in nature. The lacking of 5-hydroxy group also distinguished neocaesalpins H and I from cassane diterpenes (caesalpins) occurring in other Caesalpinia species from the phytochemical viewpoint. The nomenclature of three Caesalpinia species was also reviewed, and it was found that some species belonging to the genus Caesalpinia are improperly named and should be changed to valid names. (+info)