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(1/6757) Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris.

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

(2/6757) p27 is involved in N-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of cell growth and S-phase entry.

In this study the direct involvement of cadherins in adhesion-mediated growth inhibition was investigated. It is shown here that overexpression of N-cadherin in CHO cells significantly suppresses their growth rate. Interaction of these cells and two additional fibroblastic lines with synthetic beads coated with N-cadherin ligands (recombinant N-cadherin ectodomain or specific antibodies) leads to growth arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The cadherin-reactive beads inhibit the entry into S phase and the reduction in the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p21 and p27, following serum-stimulation of starved cells. In exponentially growing cells these beads induce G1 arrest accompanied by elevation in p27 only. We propose that cadherin-mediated signaling is involved in contact inhibition of growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and elevation of p27 levels.  (+info)

(3/6757) Tracing cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in endometriosis.

The aetiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis, defined as the presence of endometrium-like tissue outside the uterine cavity, is largely unknown. In this paper we present and discuss possibilities to study the putative pathogenic properties of endometriotic cells in vitro. The current focus of our investigations is on the invasive phenotype of the disease, assuming that this might contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis. So far, we have shown that: (i) cytokeratin-positive and E-cadherin-negative endometriotic cells have an invasive phenotype in a collagen invasion assay in vitro similar to metastatic carcinoma cells; (ii) the invasiveness of endometriotic but not of eutopic endometrial cells can be stimulated by a heat-stable protein present in peritoneal fluid; and (iii) the endometriotic cell line EEC145T, which we established, may be a useful tool for the identification of gene products which are, positively or negatively, invasion-related. Finally, our studies suggest that the invasive phenotype in endometriosis shares aspects with tumour metastasis, but might also have unique mechanisms.  (+info)

(4/6757) Cadherin-11 is expressed in invasive breast cancer cell lines.

In several cancers, including breast cancer, loss of E-cadherin expression is correlated with a loss of the epithelial phenotype and with a gain of invasiveness. Cells that have lost E-cadherin expression are either poorly invasive with a rounded phenotype, or highly invasive, with a mesenchymal phenotype. Most cells lacking E-cadherin still retain weak calcium-dependent adhesion, indicating the presence of another cadherin family member. We have now examined the expression of the mesenchymal cadherin, cadherin-11, in breast cancer cell lines. Cadherin-11 mRNA and protein, as well as a variant form, are expressed in the most invasive cell lines but not in any of the noninvasive cell lines. Cadherin-11 is localized to a detergent-soluble pool and is associated with both alpha- and beta-catenin. Immunocytochemistry shows that cadherin-11 is localized to the cell membrane at sites of cell-cell contact as well as at lamellipodia-like projections, which do not interact with other cells. These results suggest that cadherin-11 expression may be well correlated with the invasive phenotype in cancer cells and may serve as a molecular marker for the more aggressive, invasive subset of tumors. Cadherin-11 may mediate the interaction between malignant tumor cells and other cell types that normally express cadherin-11, such as stromal cells or osteoblasts or perhaps even with the surrounding extracellular matrix, thus facilitating tumor cell invasion and metastasis.  (+info)

(5/6757) Coupling assembly of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex to efficient endoplasmic reticulum exit and basal-lateral membrane targeting of E-cadherin in polarized MDCK cells.

The E-cadherin/catenin complex regulates Ca++-dependent cell-cell adhesion and is localized to the basal-lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. Little is known about mechanisms of complex assembly or intracellular trafficking, or how these processes might ultimately regulate adhesion functions of the complex at the cell surface. The cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin contains two putative basal-lateral sorting motifs, which are homologous to sorting signals in the low density lipoprotein receptor, but an alanine scan across tyrosine residues in these motifs did not affect the fidelity of newly synthesized E-cadherin delivery to the basal-lateral membrane of MDCK cells. Nevertheless, sorting signals are located in the cytoplasmic domain since a chimeric protein (GP2CAD1), comprising the extracellular domain of GP2 (an apical membrane protein) and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of E-cadherin, was efficiently and specifically delivered to the basal-lateral membrane. Systematic deletion and recombination of specific regions of the cytoplasmic domain of GP2CAD1 resulted in delivery of <10% of these newly synthesized proteins to both apical and basal-lateral membrane domains. Significantly, >90% of each mutant protein was retained in the ER. None of these mutants formed a strong interaction with beta-catenin, which normally occurs shortly after E-cadherin synthesis. In addition, a simple deletion mutation of E-cadherin that lacks beta-catenin binding is also localized intracellularly. Thus, beta-catenin binding to the whole cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin correlates with efficient and targeted delivery of E-cadherin to the lateral plasma membrane. In this capacity, we suggest that beta-catenin acts as a chauffeur, to facilitate transport of E-cadherin out of the ER and the plasma membrane.  (+info)

(6/6757) Mutated epithelial cadherin is associated with increased tumorigenicity and loss of adhesion and of responsiveness to the motogenic trefoil factor 2 in colon carcinoma cells.

Epithelial (E)-cadherin and its associated cytoplasmic proteins (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenins) are important mediators of epithelial cell-cell adhesion and intracellular signaling. Much evidence exists suggesting a tumor/invasion suppressor role for E-cadherin, and loss of expression, as well as mutations, has been described in a number of epithelial cancers. To investigate whether E-cadherin gene (CDH1) mutations occur in colorectal cancer, we screened 49 human colon carcinoma cell lines from 43 patients by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing. In addition to silent changes, polymorphisms, and intronic variants in a number of the cell lines, we detected frameshift single-base deletions in repeat regions of exon 3 (codons 120 and 126) causing premature truncations at codon 216 in four replication-error-positive (RER+) cell lines (LS174T, HCT116, GP2d, and GP5d) derived from 3 patients. In LS174T such a mutation inevitably contributes to its lack of E-cadherin protein expression and function. Transfection of full-length E-cadherin cDNA into LS174T cells enhanced intercellular adhesion, induced differentiation, retarded proliferation, inhibited tumorigenicity, and restored responsiveness to the migratory effects induced by the motogenic trefoil factor 2 (human spasmolytic polypeptide). These results indicate that, although inactivating E-cadherin mutations occur relatively infrequently in colorectal cancer cell lines overall (3/43 = 7%), they are more common in cells with an RER+ phenotype (3/10 = 30%) and may contribute to the dysfunction of the E-cadherin-catenin-mediated adhesion/signaling system commonly seen in these tumors. These results also indicate that normal E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion can restore the ability of colonic tumor cells to respond to trefoil factor 2.  (+info)

(7/6757) Misexpression of the catenin p120(ctn)1A perturbs Xenopus gastrulation but does not elicit Wnt-directed axis specification.

Modulators of cadherin function are of great interest given that the cadherin complex actively contributes to the morphogenesis of virtually all tissues. The catenin p120(ctn) (formerly p120cas) was first identified as a src- and receptor-protein tyrosine kinase substrate and later shown to interact directly with cadherins. In common with beta-catenin and plakoglobin (gamma-catenin), p120(ctn) contains a central Armadillo repeat region by which it binds cadherin cytoplasmic domains. However, little is known about the function of p120(ctn) within the cadherin complex. We examined the role of p120(ctn)1A in early vertebrate development via its exogenous expression in Xenopus. Ventral overexpression of p120(ctn)1A, in contrast to beta-catenin, did not induce the formation of duplicate axial structures resulting from the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, nor did p120(ctn) affect mesoderm induction. Rather, dorsal misexpression of p120(ctn) specifically perturbed gastrulation. Lineage tracing of cells expressing exogenous p120(ctn) indicated that cell movements were disrupted, while in vitro studies suggested that this may have been a consequence of reduced adhesion between blastomeres. Thus, while cadherin-binding proteins beta-catenin, plakoglobin, and p120(ctn) are members of the Armadillo protein family, it is clear that these proteins have distinct biological functions in early vertebrate development. This work indicates that p120(ctn) has a role in cadherin function and that heightened expression of p120(ctn) interferes with appropriate cell-cell interactions necessary for morphogenesis.  (+info)

(8/6757) The expression of beta-catenin in non-small-cell lung cancer: a clinicopathological study.

AIMS: To investigate the expression of beta-catenin in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its clinical significance. METHODS: 101 patients were surgically treated for NSCLC by lobectomy or pneumectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. Follow up was available in all patients, ranging from 24 to 110 months. Immunostaining of tissue sections from primary tumours and (when present) their lymph node metastases was performed and evaluated using a monoclonal antibody against beta-catenin. Correlations were investigated between beta-catenin immunostaining in primary tumours and E-cadherin immunostaining (data available from a previous study), lymph node stage, and survival. RESULTS: There were significant correlations between scores for beta-catenin immunostaining and E-cadherin immunostaining in primary tumours (p = 0.007), and between the beta-catenin immunostaining score in primary tumours and in their lymph node metastases (p = 0.006). An inverse correlation was found between the beta-catenin immunostaining score in primary tumours and lymph node stage N0, N1, or N2 (p = 0.03). According to the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate, the level of beta-catenin expression in primary tumours was a statistically significant prognostic factor (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced beta-catenin expression in surgically treated NSCLC is clearly associated with lymph node metastasis and an infavourable prognosis. The existence of a functional relation between E-cadherin and beta-catenin is supported by the results of this clinicopathological study.  (+info)