Role of Nrf2 in the regulation of the Mrp2 (ABCC2) gene.
(41/170)The Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2) transcription factor regulates gene expression of the GCLC (glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit), which is a key enzyme in glutathione synthesis, and GSTs (glutathione S-transferases) via the ARE (antioxidant-response element). The Mrp2 (multidrug-resistance protein 2) pump mediates the excretion of GSH and GSSG excretion as well as endo- and xeno-biotics that are conjugated with GSH, glucuronate or sulphate. Considering that Mrp2 acts synergistically with these enzymes, we hypothesized that the regulation of Mrp2 gene expression is also dependent on Nrf2. Using BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), which is a classical activator of the ARE-Nrf2 pathway, we observed an increase in the transcriptional activity of Mrp2, GCLC and Gsta1/Gsta2 genes in the mouse liver. A similar pattern of co-induction of Mrp2 and GCLC genes was also observed in mouse (Hepa 1-6) and human (HepG2) hepatoma cells treated with BHA, beta-NF (beta-naphthoflavone), 2,4,5-T (trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) or 2AAF (2-acetylaminofluorene), suggesting that these genes share common mechanism(s) of transcriptional activation in response to exposure to xenobiotics. To define the mechanism of Mrp2 gene induction, the 5'-flanking region of the mouse Mrp2 gene (2.0 kb) was isolated, and two ARE-like sequences were found: ARE-2 (-1391 to -1381) and ARE-1 (-95 to -85). Deletion analyses demonstrated that the proximal region (-185 to +99) contains the elements for the basal expression and xenobiotic-mediated induction of the Mrp2 gene. Gel-shift and supershift assays indicated that Nrf2-protein complexes bind ARE sequences of the Mrp2 promoter, preferentially to the ARE-1 sequence. Overexpression of Nrf2 increased ARE-1-mediated CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene activity, while overexpression of mutant Nrf2 protein repressed the activity. Thus Nrf2 appears to regulate Mrp2 gene expression via an ARE element located at the proximal region of its promoter in response to exposure to xenobiotics. (+info)
Simvastatin inhibits leptin-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.
(42/170)AIM: To test the hypothesis that statins inhibit leptin-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. METHODS: Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were used to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on leptin-induced hypertrophy. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined by using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) fluorescence. Total intracellular RNA and cell protein content, which serve as cell proliferative markers, were assayed by using propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence and the Bio-Rad DC protein assay, respectively. The cell surface area, an indicator of cell hypertrophy, was quantified by using Leica image analysis software. RESULTS: After 72 h treatment, leptin markedly increased RNA levels, cell surface area, and total cell protein levels in cardiomyocytes, which were significantly inhibited by simvastatin or catalase treatment. ROS levels were significantly elevated in cardiomyocytes treated with leptin for 4 h compared with those cells without leptin treatment. The increase in ROS levels in cardiomyocytes induced by leptin was reversed by treatment with simvastatin and catalase. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin inhibits leptin-induced ROS-mediated hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Statin therapy may provide an effective means of improving cardiac dysfunction in obese humans. (+info)
Chemical inducers of rodent glutathione s-transferases down-regulate human GSTA1 transcription through a mechanism involving variant hepatic nuclear factor 1-C.
(43/170)The regulation of human GSTA1 by chemical inducers of rodent glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and the regulatory role of hepatic nuclear factor (HNF) 1 was investigated in Caco-2 cells. Treatment of preconfluent and confluent cells with 12-O-tetra-decanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-anisol (BHA), and phenobarbital (PB) reduced GSTA1 mRNA levels in preconfluent and confluent cells. Constitutive levels of GSTA1 and HNF1alpha mRNA were elevated 6.25- and 50-fold, respectively, in postconfluent cells compared with preconfluent cells. Overexpression of HNF1alpha in cells transfected with a GSTA1 promoter-luciferase construct (pGSTA1-1591-luc) resulted in dose-related increases in reporter activity not observed when an HNF1 response element (HRE) in the proximal promoter was mutated (pGSTA1-DeltaHNF1-luc). TPA, 3-MC, BHA, and PB reduced HNF1alpha mRNA levels in preconfluent and confluent cells and caused marked reductions in luciferase activity in pGSTA1-1591-luc transfectants. Transcriptional repression was abrogated with pGSTA1-DeltaHNF1-luc and with truncated constructs that eliminated a functional HRE. Moreover, cotransfection of pHNF1alpha with pGSTA1-1591-luc partially prevented the reduction in luciferase activity by rodent GST inducers. Immunoblot analysis of DNA binding studies indicate that variant (v)HNF1-C binding to HRE is increased in preconfluent cells treated with 3-MC, BHA, and PB. In addition, overexpression of vHNF1-C repressed GSTA1 transcriptional activity in luciferase reporter assays. Finally, treatment with 3-MC, BHA, and PB increased vHNF1-C mRNA levels in preconfluent cells. These data demonstrate that repression of human GSTA1 transcription by chemical inducers of rodent GSTs occurs, in part, through a mechanism involving the repressive action of vHNF1-C. (+info)
Preventive effect of ortho dimer of butylated hydroxyanisole on activator protein-1 activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages stimulated by fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis, an oral anaerobe.
(44/170)Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA; a mixture of 2- and 3-BHA) is widely used as a potent antioxidant, but is reported to have adverse effects, such as carcinogenesis and pro-inflammatory activity, possibly due to the pro-oxidant property of this compound. 2-Methoxyphenol dimers derived from ferulic acid were recently demonstrated to inhibit the expression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) via redox-sensitive transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B or activator protein-1 (AP-1), due to a weakening of its pro-oxidant property by dimerization. To develop anti-inflammatory and/or anticancer drugs for the prevention of oral diseases, such as leukoplakia and destructive chronic periodontitis, whether 2-BHA (2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol) and its synthetic ortho dimer, bis-BHA (3,3'-di-tert-butyl-5,5'-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol) can inhibit AP-1 transcriptional activity stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae was examined. The fimbria-stimulated AP-1 activation of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was markedly inhibited by bis-BHA. However, BHA showed slight inhibition. Furthermore, bis-BHA significantly inhibited fimbria-induced COX-2 gene expression, which is closely involved with inflammation and carcinogenesis. These findings suggest that bis-BHA may possess a potent anti-inflammatory effect against oral diseases. (+info)
Antioxidant treatment ameliorates respiratory syncytial virus-induced disease and lung inflammation.
(45/170)RATIONALE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children. No treatment has been shown to significantly improve the clinical outcome of patients with this infection. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress could play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung inflammatory diseases. We do not known whether RSV induces pulmonary oxidative stress and whether antioxidant treatment can modulate RSV-induced lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of antioxidant administration on RSV-induced lung inflammation, clinical disease, and airway hyperreactivity (AHR). METHODS: BALB/c mice were infected with 10(7) plaque-forming units of RSV, in the presence or absence of orally administered butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), an antioxidant. Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal were measured in bronchoalveoar lavage (BAL) by colorimetric assay. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in BAL by Bio-Plex and leukotrienes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AHR to methacholine challenge was measured by whole-body plethysmography. RESULTS: BHA treatment significantly attenuated RSV-induced lung oxidative stress, as indicated by the decrease of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal content in BAL of RSV-infected mice. RSV-induced clinical illness and body weight loss were also reduced by BHA treatment, which inhibited neutrophil recruitment to the lung and significantly reduced pulmonary cytokine and chemokine production after RSV infection. Similarly, antioxidant treatment attenuated RSV-induced AHR. CONCLUSION: Modulation of oxidative stress represents a potential novel pharmacologic approach to ameliorate RSV-induced acute lung inflammation and potentially prevent long-term consequences associated with RSV infection, such as bronchial asthma. (+info)
Rapid regression of squamous cell hyperplasia and slow regression of basal cell hyperplasia in the forestomach of F344 rats treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and/or butylated hydroxyanisole.
(46/170)Cell kinetics of reversible and persistent forestomach lesions induced by the genotoxic agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and/or the nongenotoxic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was investigated. A total of 184 male F344 rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 given an initial single gastric intubation of MNNG received 2% BHA diet from the third wk to the 26th wk and then basal diet; Group 2 receiving 2% BHA without MNNG initiation; Group 3 given MNNG alone; and Group 4 serving as a nontreated control. Rats were sequentially sacrificed at 6, 16, 26, 30, and 46 wk. Bromodeoxyuridine was administered either as a single i.p. injection (100 mg/kg of body weight) 1 h before killing or continuously via an osmotic minipump (120 micrograms/h) for 1, 3, or 7 days prior to sacrifice, in each case labeled cells being detected by immunohistochemistry. Squamous cell hyperplasia (SCH) and basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), each characterized by different phenotypic keratin expression, were induced in Groups 1 to 3. After withdrawal of BHA, rapid regression of SCH and extremely slow regression of BCH were observed. Papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas developed irreversibly in Group 1 and 3, BHA significantly (P less than 0.01) enhancing the incidence of SCC in Group 1. Flash and continuous bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed SCH to consist of cells of high mitotic activity and short life span, whereas BCH consisted of cells with low mitotic activity and long life span. In addition, highly labeled areas were observed in SCH after cessation of BHA feeding in Group 1 without regression, and similar lesions were also evident in Group 3. The results suggest that rapid regression of SCH and slow regression of BCH reflect different cell kinetic patterns and that highly labeled areas after release from stimulating agents might be preneoplastic changes related to cancer development. (+info)
Identification of calcium-independent phospholipase A2gamma in mitochondria and its role in mitochondrial oxidative stress.
(47/170)Oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death mediate pathologies associated with ischemia-reperfusion and inflammation. Our previous work in rabbit renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) demonstrated that inhibition of Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) potentiates oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation and necrosis, implicating iPLA(2) in phospholipid repair. This study was conducted to identify a RPTC mitochondrial PLA(2) and determine the role of PLA(2) in oxidant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. iPLA(2) activity was detected in Percoll-purified rabbit renal cortex mitochondria (RCM) and in isolated mitochondrial inner membrane fractions from rabbit and human RCM. Immunoblot analysis and inhibitor sensitivity profiles revealed that iPLA(2)gamma is the RCM iPLA(2) activity. RCM iPLA(2) activity was enhanced in the presence of ATP and was blocked by the PKCepsilon V1-2 inhibitor. Oxidant-induced mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and swelling were accelerated by pretreatment with R-BEL, but not S-BEL. Furthermore, oxidant treatment of isolated RCM resulted in decreased iPLA(2)gamma activity. These results reveal that RCM iPLA(2) is iPLA(2)gamma, RCM iPLA(2)gamma is regulated by phosphorylation by PKCepsilon, iPLA(2)gamma protects RCM from oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation and dysfunction, and that a strategy to preserve or enhance iPLA(2)gamma activity may be of therapeutic benefit. (+info)
Butylated hydroxyanisole stimulates heme oxygenase-1 gene expression and inhibits neointima formation in rat arteries.
(48/170)OBJECTIVE: Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound that is a potent inducer of phase II genes. Since heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a vasoprotective protein that is upregulated by phase II inducers, the present study examined the effects of BHA on HO-1 gene expression and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. METHODS: The regulation of HO-1 gene expression and vascular cell growth by BHA was studied in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells and in balloon injured rat carotid arteries. RESULTS: Treatment of cultured smooth muscle cells with BHA stimulated the expression of HO-1 protein, mRNA and promoter activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. BHA-mediated HO-1 expression was dependent on the activation of NF-E2-related factor-2 by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. BHA also inhibited cell cycle progression and DNA synthesis in an HO-1-dependent manner. In addition, the local perivascular delivery of BHA immediately after arterial injury of rat carotid arteries induced HO-1 protein expression and markedly attenuated neointima formation. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that BHA stimulates HO-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, and that the induction of HO-1 contributes to the antiproliferative actions of this phenolic antioxidant. BHA represents a potentially novel therapeutic agent in treating or preventing vasculoproliferative disease. (+info)