Oxidant tone regulates RANTES gene expression in airway epithelial cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus. Role in viral-induced interferon regulatory factor activation.
(17/170)Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) produces intense pulmonary inflammation, in part, through its ability to induce chemokine synthesis in infected airway epithelial cells. RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cells expressed and secreted) is a CC chemokine which recruits and activates monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, all cell types present in the lung inflammatory infiltrate induced by RSV infection. In this study we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species in the induction of RANTES gene expression in human type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549), following RSV infection. Our results indicate that RSV infection of airway epithelial cells rapidly induces reactive oxygen species production, prior to RANTES expression, as measured by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein. Pretreatment of airway epithelial cells with the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), as well a panel of chemically unrelated antioxidants, blocks RSV-induced RANTES gene expression and protein secretion. This effect is mediated through the ability of BHA to inhibit RSV-induced interferon regulatory factor binding to the RANTES promoter interferon-stimulated responsive element, that is absolutely required for inducible RANTES promoter activation. BHA inhibits de novo interferon regulator factor (IRF)-1 and -7 gene expression and protein synthesis, and IRF-3 nuclear translocation. Together, these data indicates that a redox-sensitive pathway is involved in RSV-induced IRF activation, an event necessary for RANTES gene expression. (+info)
Inhibition of phosphatidylserine synthesis in Jurkat T cells by hydrogen peroxide.
(18/170)Incubation of Jurkat cells in the presence of H2O2 either directly added to the culture medium or generated with glucose oxidase, menadione or the couple xanthine/xanthine oxidase induced a marked decrease of phosphatidylserine synthesis in the absence of changes in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Concentration dependent response curves indicated that H2O2 induced inhibition of phosphatidylserine synthesis with an IC(50)=5 microM while both induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins and Ca(2+) signals were obtained with an EC(50)=300 microM. The tyrosine kinase and Ca(2+) independent mechanism was confirmed by comparing the H2O2-induced and the CD3-induced inhibition of phosphatidylserine synthesis using several Jurkat clones differing in the expression of cell surface receptors such as CD3/TCR and CD45 and protein tyrosine kinase such as p72syk, ZAP-70 and p56lck. While CD3-induced inhibition of phosphatidylserine synthesis necessitates protein tyrosine phosphorylation and Ca(2+) signals, H2O2 provoked its effect in all the clones studied independently of the presence or absence of the proteins previously shown to be key elements in T cell signal transduction. Conversely, the antioxidant molecule, butylated hydroxanisole, generates an increased PtdSer synthesis, suggesting that the synthesis of this phospholipid is regulated by the redox status of the cells. (+info)
Aluminum toxicity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and the production of reactive oxygen species in plant cells.
(19/170)Potential mechanisms of Al toxicity measured as Al-induced inhibition of growth in cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum, nonchlorophyllic cell line SL) and pea (Pisum sativum) roots were investigated. Compared with the control treatment without Al, the accumulation of Al in tobacco cells caused instantaneously the repression of mitochondrial activities [monitored by the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and the uptake of Rhodamine 123] and, after a lag of about 12 h, triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, respiration inhibition, ATP depletion, and the loss of growth capability almost simultaneously. The presence of an antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisol, during Al treatment of SL cells prevented not only ROS production but also ATP depletion and the loss of growth capability, suggesting that the Al-triggered ROS production seems to be a cause of ATP depletion and the loss of growth capability. Furthermore, these three late events were similarly repressed in an Al-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isolated from SL cells, suggesting that the acquisition of antioxidant functions mimicking butylated hydroxyanisol can be a mechanism of Al tolerance. In the pea root, Al also triggered ROS production, respiration inhibition, and ATP depletion, which were all correlated with inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, we conclude that Al affects mitochondrial functions, which leads to ROS production, probably the key critical event in Al inhibition of cell growth. (+info)
Nrf2 transactivator-independent GSTP1-1 expression in "GSTP1-1 positive" single cells inducible in female mouse liver by DEN: a preneoplastic character of possible initiated cells.
(20/170)Whether single cells immunohistochemically positive for glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1) induced in the female mouse liver by DEN (Hatayama et al., Carcinogenesis, 14, 537-538, 1993) are precursor initiated cells of preneoplastic foci, is of importance in chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Nrf2 transactivates a wide variety of ARE (anti-oxidant response element)-mediated enzymes including GSTP1-1. Quantitative examination revealed that the basal expression of hepatic GSTP1-1 was 60% lower in Nrf2 gene knock-out female mice(-/-) than in wild type females, and that treatment with butyrated hydroxyanisole (BHA) increased by 10-fold GSTP1-1 expression in the liver of wild type female mice but not in knockout female mice(-/-). Despite the lack of Nrf2, GSTP1-1-positive single cells were detected in livers of DEN-treated female(-/-) 3 months after treatment. Subsequent BHA feeding to the positive cell-bearing females for one more week clearly showed that the single cells were detectable with females(-/-) but not with females(+/+,+/-) due to the strong induction of GSTP1-1 in the surrounding hepatocytes. The sensitivity to DEN hepatocarcinogenesis was not significantly different among genotypes. These results demonstrate that Nrf2 is regulatory in normal hepatocytes but not in the single cells positive for GSTP1-1 inducible in the female mouse liver by DEN. The transcriptional distinction observed for the DEN-transformants is suggestive of a preneoplastic character of precursor initiated cells. (+info)
Activation and caspase-mediated inhibition of PARP: a molecular switch between fibroblast necrosis and apoptosis in death receptor signaling.
(21/170)Death ligands not only induce apoptosis but can also trigger necrosis with distinct biochemical and morphological features. We recently showed that in L929 cells CD95 ligation induces apoptosis, whereas TNF elicits necrosis. Treatment with anti-CD95 resulted in typical apoptosis characterized by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. These events were barely induced by TNF, although TNF triggered cell death to a similar extent as CD95. Surprisingly, whereas the caspase inhibitor zVAD prevented CD95-mediated apoptosis, it potentiated TNF-induced necrosis. Cotreatment with TNF and zVAD was characterized by ATP depletion and accelerated necrosis. To investigate the mechanisms underlying TNF-induced cell death and its potentiation by zVAD, we examined the role of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). TNF but not CD95 mediated PARP activation, whereas a PARP inhibitor suppressed TNF-induced necrosis and the sensitizing effect of zVAD. In addition, fibroblasts expressing a noncleavable PARP-1 mutant were more sensitive to TNF than wild-type cells. Our results indicate that TNF induces PARP activation leading to ATP depletion and subsequent necrosis. In contrast, in CD95-mediated apoptosis caspases cause PARP-1 cleavage and thereby maintain ATP levels. Because ATP is required for apoptosis, we suggest that PARP-1 cleavage functions as a molecular switch between apoptotic and necrotic modes of death receptor-induced cell death. (+info)
Tipping the balance between necrosis and apoptosis in human and murine cells treated with interferon and dsRNA.
(22/170)Interferons enhance the cellular antiviral response by inducing expression of protective proteins. Many of these proteins are activated by dsRNA, a typical by-product of viral infection. Here we show that type-I and type-II interferons can sensitize cells to dsRNA-induced cytotoxicity. In caspase-8- or FADD-deficient Jurkat cells dsRNA induces necrosis, instead of apoptosis. In L929sA cells dsRNA-induced necrosis involves high reactive oxygen species production. The antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole protects cells from necrosis, but shifts the response to apoptosis. Treatment with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone or overexpression of Bcl-2 prevent this shift and promote necrosis. Our results suggest that a single stimulus can initiate different death-signaling pathways, leading to either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. Inhibition of key events in these signaling pathways, such as caspase activation, cytochrome c release or mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, tips the balance between necrosis and apoptosis, leading to dominance of one of these death programs. (+info)
A chiral ligand-mediated asymmetric addition of a lithium BHA ester enolate to an aldehyde.
(23/170)The asymmetric reaction of a lithium enolate generated from a BHA (2, 6-di-tert-buty-4-methoxyphenyl) propanoate was allowed to react with benzaldehyde in the presence of a diether-type chiral ligand affording the corresponding anti-aldol product in a moderate enantioselectivity. A tetradentate ligand induced better enantioselectivity albeit relative loss of anti-selectivity. A variation of lithiating amide agent affected the selectivity, indicating involvement of an amine as a component of the mixed aggregate. Absolute configuration of some of the aldol products was determined by standard transformations. (+info)
Doxorubicin-induced death in neuroblastoma does not involve death receptors in S-type cells and is caspase-independent in N-type cells.
(24/170)Death induced by doxorubicin (dox) in neuroblastoma (NB) cells was originally thought to occur via the Fas pathway, however since studies suggest that caspase-8 expression is silenced in most high stage NB tumors, it is more probable that dox-induced death occurs via a different mechanism. Caspase-8 silenced N-type invasive NB cell lines LAN-1 and IMR-32 were investigated for their sensitivity to dox, and compared to S-type noninvasive SH-EP NB cells expressing caspase-8. All cell lines had similar sensitivities to dox, independently of caspase-8 expression. Dox induced caspase-3, -7, -8 and -9 and Bid cleavage in S-type cells and death was blocked by caspase inhibitors but not by oxygen radical scavenger BHA. In contrast, dox-induced death in N-type cells was caspase-independent and was inhibited by BHA. Dox induced a drop in mitochondrial membrane permeability in all cell lines. Dox-induced death in S-type cells gave rise to apoptotic nuclei, whereas in N-type cells nuclei were non-apoptotic in morphology. Transfection of SH-EP cells with a dominant negative FADD mutant inhibited TRAIL-induced death, but had no effect on dox-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that S-type cells undergo apoptosis after dox treatment independently of death receptors, whereas N-type cells are killed by a caspase-independent mechanism. (+info)