Transient neurological symptoms after spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric 5% lidocaine or general anaesthesia.
Transient neurotoxicity of concentrated local anaesthetics has been thought to be the main reason for transient neurological symptoms after spinal anaesthesia. Profound musculoligamental relaxation by high doses of local anaesthetics may contribute to the development of postoperative musculoskeletal pain. In order to evaluate the role of the loss of strength of the supportive structures of the spine in the development of transient neurological symptoms, 60 patients (ASA I-II) undergoing minor orthopaedic, varicose vein or inguinal hernia operations were allocated randomly to receive spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric lidocaine 50 mg ml-1 (85-100 mg) or balanced general anaesthesia with neuromuscular block. Patients were interviewed 24 h later and after 1 week they returned a written questionnaire. Transient neurological symptoms, consisting of pain in the buttocks or pain radiating symmetrically to the lower extremities, occurred in eight patients (27%) receiving spinal anaesthesia and in one patient (3%) receiving general anaesthesia (P < 0.05). We conclude that a transient neurotoxic effect of hyperbaric lidocaine 50 mg ml-1 is probably the main reason for transient neurological symptoms after spinal anaesthesia but musculoligamental relaxation may contribute to the development of low back or leg pain after both anaesthetic techniques. (+info)
Blood flow of the gluteus medius muscle. An animal study.
We investigated the effects of subperiosteal dissection on blood flow in the gluteal medius muscle in adult rabbits using the hydrogen washout technique. After the control blood-flow rate was determined, 8 rabbits were separated into 2 groups according to the direction of the dissection. The gluteal medius muscle was dissected from the iliac crest in the proximal-distal direction in 10 hips. In another 6 hips, the greater trochanter was osteomised and the gluteus medius muscle was dissected from the ilium in the distal-proximal direction. Dissection of the middle third of the gluteus medius muscle caused the most significant reduction in blood flow, more than 50% in both groups. This result indicates that minimising damage to the mid-portion of the gluteus medius muscle is important for reducing the incidence of post-operative complications. (+info)
Coordinated ground forces exerted by buttocks and feet are adequately programmed for weight transfer during sit-to-stand.
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis whether weight transfer during sit-to-stand (STS) is the result of coordinated ground forces exerted by buttocks and feet before seat-off. Whole-body kinematics and three-dimensional ground forces from left and right buttock as well as from left and right foot were recorded for seven adults during STS. We defined a preparatory phase from onset of the first detectable anterior/posterior (A/P) force to seat-off (buttock forces fell to 0) and a rising phase from seat-off to the decrease of center of mass (CoM) vertical velocity to zero. STS was induced by an increase of vertical and backward directed ground forces exerted by the buttocks that significantly preceded the onset of any trunk movement. All ground forces peaked before or around the moment of seat-off, whereas all kinematic variables, except trunk forward rotation and hip flexion, peaked after seat-off, during or after the rising phase. The present study suggests that the weight transfer from sit to stand is induced by ground forces exerted by buttocks and feet before seat-off, i.e., during the preparatory phase. The buttocks generate the isometric "rising forces," e.g., the propulsive impulse for the forward acceleration of the body, while the feet apply adequate damping control before seat-off. This indicates that the rising movement is a result of these coordinated forces, targeted to match the subject's weight and support base distance between buttocks and feet. The single peaked, bell-shaped profiles peaking before seat-off, were seen beneath buttocks for the "rising drive," i.e., between the time of peak backward directed force and seat-off, as well as beneath the feet for the "damping drive," i.e., from onset to the peak of forward-directed force and for CoM A/P velocity. This suggests that both beginning and end of the weight transfer process are programmed before seat-off. The peak deceleration of A/P CoM took place shortly ( approximately 100 ms) after CoM peak velocity, resulting in a well controlled CoM deceleration before seat-off. In contrast to the view of other authors, this suggests that body equilibrium is controlled during weight transfer. (+info)
Damage to the superior gluteal nerve after two different approaches to the hip.
We have carried out a blind, prospective study of 50 consecutive patients undergoing replacement arthroplasty of the hip using two different approaches. Clinical assessment, including the Harris hip score and a modified Trendelenberg test, and electrophysiological examination of the abductor muscles of the hip were undertaken before and three months after surgery. We found that 48% of patients had preoperative evidence of chronic injury to the superior gluteal nerve. Perioperative injury to the nerve occurred commonly with both approaches to the hip. We did not find a significant correlation between injury to the superior gluteal nerve and clinical problems. (+info)
Sensitivity to sunburn is associated with susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of cutaneous cell-mediated immunity.
Skin cancer incidence is highest in white-skinned people. Within this group, skin types I/II (sun sensitive/tan poorly) are at greater risk than skin types III/IV (sun tolerant/tan well). Studies in mice demonstrate that ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced suppression of cell-mediated immune function plays an important role in the development of skin cancer and induces a susceptibility to infectious disease. A similar role is suspected in humans, but we lack quantitative human data to make risk assessments of ambient solar exposure on human health. This study demonstrates that ambient levels of solar UVR, typically experienced within 1 h of exposure to noonday summer sunlight, can suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses in healthy white-skinned humans in vivo (n = 93). There was a linear relationship between increase in erythema and suppression of CHS (P < 0.001), and a moderate sunburn (two minimal erythema doses [2 MED]) was sufficient to suppress CHS in all volunteers by 93%. However, a single suberythemal exposure of either 0.25 or 0.5 MED suppressed CHS responses by 50 and 80%, respectively, in skin types I/II, whereas 1 MED only suppressed CHS by 40% in skin types III/IV. The two- to threefold greater sensitivity of skin types I/II for a given level of sunburn may play a role in their greater sensitivity to skin cancer. (+info)
Correction of arterial structure and endothelial dysfunction in human essential hypertension by the angiotensin receptor antagonist losartan.
BACKGROUND: Structural and functional alterations of the vasculature may contribute to complications of hypertension. Because angiotensin II may be pivotal in some of these vascular abnormalities, we tested the hypothesis that the angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist losartan, in contrast to the beta-blocker atenolol, would correct resistance artery abnormalities in patients with essential hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nineteen untreated patients with mild essential hypertension (47+/-2 years, range 30 to 65 years; 57% male) were randomly assigned in double-blind fashion to losartan or atenolol treatment for 1 year. Nine age/sex-matched normotensive subjects were also studied. Both treatments reduced blood pressure to a comparable degree (losartan, from 149+/-4.1/101+/-1.6 to 128+/-3.6/86+/-2.2 mm Hg, P<0.01; atenolol, from 150+/-4.0/99+/-1.2 to 130+/-3.2/84+/-1.4 mm Hg, P<0.01). Resistance arteries (luminal diameter 150 to 350 microm) dissected from gluteal subcutaneous biopsies were studied on a pressurized myograph. After 1 year of treatment, the ratio of the media width to lumen diameter of arteries from losartan-treated patients was significantly reduced (from 8.4+/-0.4% to 6.7+/-0.3%, P<0.01). Arteries from atenolol-treated patients exhibited no significant change (from 8. 3+/-0.3% to 8.8+/-0.5% after treatment). Endothelium-dependent relaxation (acetylcholine-induced) was normalized by losartan (from 82.1+/-4.9% to 94.7+/-1.1%, P<0.01) but not by atenolol (from 80. 4+/-2.7% to 81.7+/-4.6%). Endothelium-independent relaxation (by sodium nitroprusside) was unchanged after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The AT(1) antagonist losartan corrected the altered structure and endothelial dysfunction of resistance arteries from patients with essential hypertension, whereas the beta-blocker atenolol had no effect. (+info)
The anatomy and function of the gluteus minimus muscle.
In order to investigate the functional anatomy of gluteus minimus we dissected 16 hips in fresh cadavers. The muscle originates from the external aspect of the ilium, between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines, and also at the sciatic notch from the inside of the pelvis where it protects the superior gluteal nerve and artery. It inserts anterosuperiorly into the capsule of the hip and continues to its main insertion on the greater trochanter. Based on these anatomical findings, a model was developed using plastic bones. A study of its mechanics showed that gluteus minimus acts as a flexor, an abductor and an internal or external rotator, depending on the position of the femur and which part of the muscle is active. It follows that one of its functions is to stabilise the head of the femur in the acetabulum by tightening the capsule and applying pressure on the head. Careful preservation or reattachment of the tendon of gluteus minimus during surgery on the hip is strongly recommended. (+info)
Induction of fatty acid translocase/CD36, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2, leptin, uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression in human subcutaneous fat by lipid infusion.
Little is known about the mechanisms involved in the preferential channeling of different fuels to fat and how the target tissue participates in this process. Dietary fatty acids have been shown to act as signaling molecules that bind and activate a new class of nuclear receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR-gamma is particularly interesting because it may have the potential to link particular fatty acids with a program of gene expression involved in lipid storage and metabolism. We investigated whether a nutrient-sensing pathway is activated by an increased availability of lipid fuels in nine normal weight male volunteers. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the mRNA expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36, PPAR-gamma2, leptin, uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 and UCP-3, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was investigated in gluteal subcutaneous fat biopsies before and after 5 h infusions of saline or Intralipid (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Milan, Italy) plus heparin, which does not modify insulinemia. Marked increases in FAT/CD36 (724+/-18%; P < 0.05), PPAR-gamma2 (200+/-8%; P < 0.05), leptin (110+/-13%; P < 0.05), UCP-2 (120+/-7%; P < 0.05), UCP-3 (80+/-5%; P < 0.05), and TNF-alpha mRNA (130+/-12%; P < 0.05) were observed in comparison with pretreatment levels, whereas there was no change after saline infusion. These data suggest that the in vivo gene expression of FAT/CD36, PPAR-gamma2, leptin, UCP-2, UCP-3, and TNF-alpha in subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by circulating lipids independent of insulin and that prolonged hyperlipidemia may therefore contribute to increased fat metabolism and storage as a result of the increased expression of these proteins. (+info)