Purification and characterization of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase derived from Bacillus circulans. A crucial carbocyclization enzyme in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminoglycoside antibiotics.
The biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine, the central aglycon of a major group of clinically important aminoglycoside antibiotics, commences with the initial carbocycle formation step from D-glucose-6-phosphate to 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose. This crucial step is known to be catalyzed by 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase, which has not yet been characterized so far. Reported in this paper is the first purification of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase from butirosin-producing Bacillus circulans SANK 72073 to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was isolated as a heterodimeric protein comprising from a 23 kDa- and a 42 kDa polypeptide chains. The Km of the enzyme for D-glucose-6-phosphate was estimated to be 9.0 x 10(-4) M and that for NAD+ 1.7 x 10(-4) M, kcat for D-glucose-6-phosphate being 7.3 x 10(-2) s(-1). The presence of Co2+ was essential for the enzyme activity, but Zn2+ was totally inhibitory. While the reaction mechanisms are quite similar, 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase appears to be distinct from dehydroquinate synthase in the shikimate pathway, with respect to the quaternary structure, metal ion requirement, and the kinetic parameters. (+info)
Butirosin-biosynthetic gene cluster from Bacillus circulans.
Butirosin is an interesting 2-deoxystreptamine (DOS)-containing aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by non-actinomycete Bacilli. Recently we were successful in purification of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase from butirosin-producer Bacillus circulans as the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of DOS, in cloning of the responsible gene (btrC), and in its overexpression in Escherichia coli. The present study involved gene-walking approach, which allowed us to find a gene cluster around btrC. The function of each gene was further investigated by gene disruption, and the disruptants of btrB, btrC, btrD and btrM showed no antibiotic producing activity. Therefore, the gene cluster found so far was determined to be a part of the butirosin biosynthetic gene cluster. Functions of some ORFs are also discussed in terms of butirosin biosynthesis on the basis of database search. (+info)
Significance of the 20-kDa subunit of heterodimeric 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase for the biosynthesis of butirosin antibiotics in Bacillus circulans.
A gene (btrC2) encoding the 20-kDa subunit of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose (DOI) synthase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine, was identified from the butirosin-producer Bacillus circulans by reverse genetics. The deduced amino acid sequence of BtrC2 closely resembled that of YaaE of B. subtilis, but the function of the latter has not been known to date. Instead, BtrC2 appeared to show sequence similarity to a certain extent with HisH of B. subtilis, an amidotransferase subunit of imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase. Disruption of btrC2 reduced the growth rate compared with the wild type, and simultaneously antibiotic producing activity was lost. Addition of NH4Cl to the medium complemented only the growth rate of the disruptant, and both the growth rate and antibiotic production were restored by addition of yeast extract. In addition, a heterologous co-expression system of btrC2 with btrC was constructed in Escherichia coli. The simultaneously over-expressed BtrC2 and BtrC constituted a heterodimer, the biochemical features of which resembled those of DOI synthase from B. circulans more than those of the recombinant homodimeric BtrC. Despite the similarity of BtrC2 to HisH the heterodimer showed neither aminotransfer nor amidotransfer activity for 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose as a substrate. All the observations suggest that BtrC2 is involved not only in the secondary metabolism, but also in the primary metabolism in B. circulans. The function of BtrC2 in the butirosin biosynthesis appears to be indirect, and may be involved in stabilization of DOI synthase and in regulation of its enzyme activity. (+info)
Identification of L-glutamine: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose aminotransferase required for the biosynthesis of butirosin in Bacillus circulans.
Using inverse PCR, two new genes (btrN and btrS) were identified upstream of the putative glycosyltransferase gene btrM in the butirosin-biosynthetic btr gene cluster of Bacillus circulans. The upstream gene btrS showed significant homology with stsC of Streptomyces griseus, which encodes L-glutamine:scyllo-inosose aminotransferase in the biosynthesis of streptomycin. The function of BtrS was further confirmed by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and chemical identification of the conversion of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose into 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine. The identification of BtrS as L-glutamine:2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose aminotransferase is the first report of the aminotransferase gene responsible for 2-deoxystreptamine biosynthesis. (+info)
New antibiotic produced by bacteria, 5-beta-D-xylofuranosylneamine.
A new aminoglycoside antibiotic was isolated from the fermentation broths of two strains of Bacillus species. The antibiotic is active against gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria, and its antimicrobial spectrum is similar to that of ribostamycin. The chemical structure was determined to be 5-beta-d-xylofuranosylneamine, which is identical to the deacylated product obtained from butirosin A. (+info)
Butirosin compared with gentamicin in vitro and in vivo.
Butirosin (BTN) (P. W. K. Woo, G. L. Coffey, H. W. Dion, S. A. Fusari, and G. D. Senos, U. S. Patent 3,541,078, 1970) is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic notably active against opportunist bacterial species within Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Proteus. Numerous comparative tests were carried out with BTN and gentamicin (GTM) in vitro and in experimental infections in mice. BTN was more active in Mueller-Hinton broth than in agar, but its activity was lessened at acid pH or under anaerobiosis, as has been observed with other aminoglycosides. In standard agar diffusion tests, inhibition zones greater than 12 mm around 30-mug BTN disks generally denoted susceptibility, equivalent to minimal inhibitory concentrations [Formula: see text] 25 mug/ml. Cross-resistance between BTN and GTM occurred in a variable manner, with a number of bacterial strains strongly resistant to GTM being moderately susceptible to BTN. In mice, after a single subcutaneous injection, absorption of both antibiotics was rapid, with peak serum levels occurring in 15 min; this was followed by rapid elimination with estimated serum half-lives of about 20 min for each. After peroral administration of high doses in mice, there was no appreciable absorption of BTN. Several tests were carried out to compare BTN and GTM with respect to minimal inhibitory concentrations in vitro, acute subcutaneous median mouse protective doses, peak serum levels at such doses, and the therapeutic ratios derived from acute median protective and lethal doses. Although GTM usually proved to be more potent antibacterially on a weight basis, observations on BTN indicated a superior effectiveness in terms of therapeutic ratios. (+info)
Biosynthesis of the unique amino acid side chain of butirosin: possible protective-group chemistry in an acyl carrier protein-mediated pathway.
Butirosins A and B are naturally occurring aminoglycoside antibiotics that have a (2S)-4-amino-2-hydroxybutyrate (AHBA) side chain. Semisynthetic addition of AHBA to clinically valuable aminoglycoside antibiotics has been shown both to improve their pharmacological properties and to prevent their deactivation by a number of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes involved in bacterial resistance. We report here that the biosynthesis of AHBA from L-glutamate, encoded within a previously identified butirosin biosynthetic gene cluster, proceeds via intermediates tethered to a specific acyl carrier protein (ACP). Five components of the pathway have been purified and characterized, including the ACP (BtrI), an ATP-dependent ligase (BtrJ), a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase (BtrK), and a two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase system (BtrO and the previously unreported BtrV). The proposed biosynthetic pathway includes a gamma-glutamylation of an ACP-derived gamma-aminobutyrate intermediate, possibly a rare example of protective group chemistry in biosynthesis. (+info)
The ribostamycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces ribosidificus: comparison with butirosin biosynthesis.
A cluster of genes for ribostamycin (Rbm) biosynthesis was isolated from Streptomyces ribosidificus ATCC 21294. Sequencing of 31.892 kb of the genomic DNA of S. ribosidificus revealed 26 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative Rbm biosynthetic genes as well as resistance and other genes. One of ten putative Rbm biosynthetic genes, rbmA, was expressed in S. lividans TK24, and shown to encode 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose (DOI) synthase. Acetylation of various aminoglycoside-aminocyclitol (AmAcs) by RbmI confirmed it to be an aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase. Comparison of the genetic control of ribostamycin and butirosin biosynthesis pointed to a common biosynthetic route for these compounds, despite the considerable differences between them in genetic organization. (+info)