(1/150) Selective antiaggressive effects of alnespirone in resident-intruder test are mediated via 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors: A comparative pharmacological study with 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin, ipsapirone, buspirone, eltoprazine, and WAY-100635.
The present study characterized the effects of the novel, selective, and potent 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (serotonin) (5-HT1A) receptor agonist, alnespirone [S-20499, (S)-N-4-[5-methoxychroman-3-yl)propylamino)butyl- 8-azaspiro-(4,5)-diacetamide, hydrochloride] on offensive and defensive resident-intruder aggression in wild-type rats and compared its actions with those of the prototypical full 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2- dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), the partial 5-HT1A agonists ipsapirone and buspirone, and the mixed 5-HT1A/1B agonist eltoprazine. All five agonists exerted effective dose-dependent decreases of offensive aggressive behavior in resident rats; 8-OH-DPAT was the most potent (ID50 = 0.074 mg/kg), followed by eltoprazine (0.24), buspirone (0.72), ipsapirone (1.08), and alnespirone (1.24). However, in terms of selectivity of the antiaggressive effects as determined by the absence of decrements in social interest and general motor activity, alnespirone appeared to be superior. In the defensive aggression test, neither alnespirone nor any of the other four agonists changed defensive behaviors in the intruder rats. The involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the antiaggressive actions of these drugs was confirmed by showing that the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2- pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride), which was inactive alone, fully prevented the antiaggressive effects of alnespirone, 8-OH-DPAT, and buspirone and partly reversed those of ipsapirone and eltoprazine. The data clearly indicate that alnespirone effectively suppresses offensive aggression with an advantageous profile of action compared with other full or partial 5-HT1A agonists. These selective antiaggressive actions of alnespirone are mediated by stimulating 5-HT1A receptors, presumably the somatodendritic autoreceptors at the raphe nuclei. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for a major involvement of these 5-HT1A receptors in the modulation of aggressive behavior by 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone, buspirone, and eltoprazine. (+info)
(2/150) A role for extracellular adenosine in time-dependent reversal of long-term potentiation by low-frequency stimulation at hippocampal CA1 synapses.
The involvement of adenosine on the development of time-dependent reversal of long-term potentiation (LTP) by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) was investigated at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of rat hippocampal slices. A train of LFS (2 Hz, 10 min, 1200 pulses) had no long-term effects on synaptic transmission but produced lasting depression of previously potentiated responses. This reversal of LTP (depotentiation) was observed when the stimulus was delivered =3 min after induction of LTP. However, application at 10 min after induction had no detectable effect on potentiation. This time-dependent reversal of LTP by LFS appeared to be mediated by extracellular adenosine, because it was mimicked by bath-applied adenosine and was specifically inhibited by the selective A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (100 nM). The effect of adenosine could be mimicked by 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist buspirone, but the LFS-induced depotentiation could not be antagonized by 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist NAN-190. The source of extracellular adenosine in response to LFS appeared to be attributable to the efflux of cAMP. In addition, this LFS-induced depotentiation was blocked by bath application of adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin or injection of a cAMP analog Sp-adenosine cAMP (10 mM) into postsynaptic neurons. Moreover, the selective protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A prevented the LFS-induced depotentiation. These results thus suggest that increasing extracellular adenosine appears to underlie the LFS-induced depotentiation via acting on the A(1) receptor subtype to interrupt the cAMP-dependent biochemical processes leading to the LTP expression. (+info)
(3/150) Constitutive G(i2)-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase type II by the 5-HT1A receptor. Inhibition by anxiolytic partial agonists.
The 5-HT1A receptor is implicated in depression and anxiety. This receptor couples to G(i) proteins to inhibit adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity but can stimulate AC in tissues (e.g. hippocampus) that express ACII. The role of ACII in receptor-mediated stimulation of cAMP formation was examined in HEK-293 cells transfected with the 5-HT1A receptor, which mediated inhibition of basal and G(s)-induced cAMP formation in the absence of ACII. In cells cotransfected with 5-HT1A receptor and ACII plasmids, 5-HT1A agonists induced a 1. 5-fold increase in cAMP level. Cotransfection of 5-HT1A receptor, ACII, and Galpha(i2), but not Galpha(i1), Galpha(i3), or Galpha(o), resulted in an agonist-independent 6-fold increase in the basal cAMP level, suggesting that G(i2) preferentially coupled the receptor to ACII. The 5-HT1B receptor also constitutively activated ACII. Constitutive activity of the 5-HT1A receptor was blocked by pertussis toxin and the Gbetagamma antagonist, betaCT, suggesting an important role for Gbetagamma-mediated activation of ACII. The Thr-149 --> Ala mutation in the second intracellular domain of the 5-HT1A receptor disrupted Gbetagamma-selective activation of ACII. Spontaneous 5-HT1A receptor activity was partially attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor partial agonists with anxiolytic activity (e.g. buspirone and flesinoxan) but was not altered by full agonists or antagonists. Thus, anxiolytic activity may involve inhibition of spontaneous 5-HT1A receptor activity. (+info)
(4/150) Stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay of buspirone HCl.
The United States Pharmacopoeia high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay method of buspirone is not able to discriminate buspirone from its degradation products. The purpose of this work is to develop a sensitive, selective, and validated stability-indicating HPLC assay for the analysis of a buspirone hydrochloride in a bulk drug. Buspirone HCI and its potential impurities and degradation products are analyzed on an Ultrasphere C18 column heated to 40 degrees C using a gradient program that contains monobasic potassium phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) and acetonitrile-methanol mixture (13:17) of 35% for 5 minutes, then increased to 54% in 5.5 minutes. The samples are monitored using a photo-diode array detector and integrated at 244 and 210 nm. The stress testing of buspirone HCI shows that buspirone acid hydrochloride is the major degradation product. The developed method shows a separation of buspirone degradation product and its potential impurities in one run. The stability of buspirone HCI is studied under accelerated conditions in order to provide a rapid indication of differences that might result from a change in the manufacturing process or source of the sample. The forced degradation conditions include the effect of heat, moisture, light, acid-base hydrolysis, sonication, and oxidation. The compatibility of buspirone HCI with some pharmaceutical excipients is studied under stress conditions. The linear range of buspirone HCI is between 5 and 200 ng/microL with a limit of quantitation of 2.5 ng/microL. The intraassay percentage deviation is not more than 0.38%, and the day-to-day variation was not more than 0.80%. The selectivity, repeatability, linearity, range, accuracy, sample solution stability, ruggedness, and robustness show acceptable values. (+info)
(5/150) Reversal of morphine-induced apnea in the anesthetized rat by drugs that activate 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptors.
The purpose of our study was to test the hypothesis that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1A) receptor agonists counteract morphine-induced respiratory depression. Studies were conducted in anesthetized rats, and respiratory activity was monitored with diaphragm electromyography. Morphine was administered i.v. in doses that produce apnea. Once apnea was established, i.v. administration of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist drug 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) at 10 or 100 microgram/kg restored normal breathing in each animal (n = 24). This antagonistic effect of 8-OH-DPAT on morphine-induced respiratory depression was observed in both spontaneously breathing and artificially ventilated animals. Results obtained with 8-OH-DPAT were mimicked by buspirone (50 microgram/kg i.v.), another 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist drug. Pretreatment with 4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'[N-(2'-pyridinyl]-p-iodo-benzamido]ethyl]pi perazine, an antagonist of 5-HT(1A) receptors, prevented 8-OH-DPAT from counteracting morphine-induced apnea. These results indicate that activation of central nervous system 5-HT(1A) receptors is an effective way of reversing morphine-induced respiratory depression. Most important, this is the third model of disturbed respiratory function in which drugs that stimulate 5-HT(1A) receptors have been shown to restore breathing to near-normal levels. (+info)
(6/150) Contribution of development to buspirone effects on REM sleep: a preliminary report.
In order to assess whether development influences the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep by serotonergic (5-HT) systems, the REM sleep responses to the partial 5-HT(1A) agonist, buspirone, were assessed in 14 normal adolescent and adult volunteers. Subjects were studied on three separate sessions for three consecutive nights. On the second night of each session, subjects received placebo or one of two doses of buspirone (0.14 mg/kg and 0.28 mg/kg, orally). Night 3 was considered the "recovery" night. In adolescents, both doses of buspirone significantly delayed REM latency. In contrast, low-dose buspirone had no effect on REM latency in the adults, and there was only a tendency for prolongation of REM latency with the higher dose. Other measures of REM sleep on nights 2 and 3 were comparable between the two groups. These preliminary results suggest that post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) acceptor-coupled REM sleep responses, particularly REM latency, may be relatively greater in youngsters than in adults, possibly due to reduced presynaptic input. The findings are discussed in relation to the age-dependent expression of REM sleep changes associated with depression. (+info)
(7/150) Liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of buspirone HCl and its potential impurities.
An accurate, reproducible, and sensitive method for the determination of buspirone HCl and its potential impurities is developed and validated. The validated liquid chromaography method is conducted to meet the Food and Drug Administration/ International Conference on Harmonization requirements for the analysis of buspirone HCI in the presence of its impurities. Five buspirone HCI potential impurities, including 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine (I), propargyl chloride (II), 3,3'-tetramethylene glutarimide (III), propargyl glutarimide (IV), and the Mannich base-condensate of I-IV fumarate (V), are separated using a microBondapack C18 column by gradient elution with a flow rate 2.0 mL/min. The initial mobile phase composition is 90:10 (v/v) 10mM KH2PO4 (pH 6.1)-acetonitrile. After a 1-min initial hold, a linear gradient is performed in 26 min to 35:65 (v/v) 10mM KH2PO4 (pH 6.1)-acetonitrile. The samples are detected at 210 and 240 nm using a photo-diode array detector. The linear range of detection for buspirone HCI was between 1.25 ng/microL and 500 ng/microL, with a limit of quantification of 1.25 ng/microL. The linearity, range, peak purity, selectivity, system performance parameters, precision, accuracy, and robustness for all of the impurities were also shown to have acceptable values. (+info)
(8/150) Behavioral effects of plant-derived essential oils in the geller type conflict test in mice.
The present study was conducted to further explore plant-derived essential oils that possess an anticonflict effect using the Geller type conflict test in ICR mice. The benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam increased the response (lever pressing) rate during the alarm period (i.e., an anticonflict effect), but the 5-HT1A partial agonist buspirone did not. Oils of juniper, cypress, geranium and jasmine did not produce any effect in this test. Frankincense oil decreased the response rate during the safe period at 1600 mg/kg, but did not exhibit any effect on the response rate during the alarm period. In contrast, lavender oil increased the response rate during the alarm period in a dose-dependent manner in the same manner as diazepam. These results indicate that not only rose oil but also lavender oil possess an anticonflict effect in mice. (+info)