Role of Nr13 in regulation of programmed cell death in the bursa of Fabricius.
Apoptotic cell death is developmentally regulated in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Although apoptosis is low in the embryonic bursa, cell death increases markedly after hatching. The expression of Bcl2 family cell death antagonists was examined to identify the genes that regulate bursal cell apoptosis. The expression of Bcl-xL, A1, and Mcl1 was detected in both embryos and hatched birds, whereas Nr13 was expressed at high levels in embryonic bursa, and decreased significantly after hatching, correlating inversely with apoptosis. The oncogene v-reland phorbol myristate acetate, two known inhibitors of bursal cell apoptosis, induced Nr13 expression. Overexpression of Nr13 in DT40 bursal lymphoma cells protected them from low serum-induced apoptosis. The mechanism of inhibition of apoptosis by Nr13 is likely to involve a critical BH4 domain and interaction with death agonist Bax. Deletion of the BH4 domain converted Nr13 into a death agonist. Bax coimmunoprecipitated with Nr13 and Bax was induced, whereas Nr13 levels diminished when bursal lymphoblasts were induced to apoptosis by dispersion. Bursal transplantation studies demonstrated that Nr13 could prevent the in vivo programmed elimination of bursal stem cells after hatching, suggesting that Nr13 plays a role in maintaining bursal stem cells. (+info)
Lysis of myelocytes in chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus.
In specific-pathogen-free chickens infected with the highly virulent HPS-2 strain or virulent reference GBF-1 strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), pathologic changes of the bone marrow were investigated. On histologic examination, bone marrow lesions were prominent in the HPS-2 group but only mild in the GBF-1 group. The bone marrow of the HPS-2 group showed severe lysis and depletion of heterophil myelocytes with pyknotic nuclear alteration 2-3 days after inoculation. On examination with an electron microscope, heterophil myelocytes were characterized by shrinkage of the cytoplasm and peripheral condensation of nuclear chromatin. IBDV particles were not detected in altered myelocytes. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling method demonstrated a positive reaction in only heterophil myelocytes. In contrast, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HPS-2-infected bone marrow cells was indiscernible by agarose gel electrophoresis. These findings indicate that lysis of bone marrow cells is selectively induced in heterophil myelocytes at an early stage after IBDV infection and independent of virus replication. (+info)
Infectivity to hosts of the endogenous stages of chicken and murine Cryptosporidium.
Five groups of 4 mice each were inoculated with 10(6) Cryptosporidium muris oocysts. They were necropsied on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The stomach mucosa from each group were made into 10% suspension in physiological saline and were orally inoculated to 2 mice each. Recipients given suspension from infected mice on day 6, 8 and 10 shed oocysts from 6, 9 and 6, respectively. Similarly, White Leghorn received 10(6) Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were killed daily between 1 and 6 days. Recipients given bursa of Fabricius or caecum of donor birds on days 4, 5 and 6 shed oocysts. The endogenous stages of murine and chicken Cryptosporidium were able to infect the appropriate host. (+info)
Effect of thymus extract on immunologic reactivity of chicken vaccinated with infectious bursal disease virus.
The effects of crude thymus extract on the immune response and protection against challenge with virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were studied in one-day-old chick. Oral administration of thymus extract (1 ml/kg) markedly and significantly increased the total protein, albumin, globulin, Tri-iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) and the body weight gain in one-day-old chick. In addition, it increased the total lymphocytic count over four weeks after administration. Although vaccination also increased total protein, globulin, T4 and the total lymphocytic count but it significantly decreased the body weight gain of the chick and administration of thymus extract, before, during or after vaccination markedly improved the vaccination effectiveness with significant elevation of the globulin level and body weight gain of the chick. It also prevented the decrease in the relative weights of bursa, spleen and thyroid gland which commonly prevailed during vaccination. Chicken administered thymus extract and vaccinated with infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine showed 100% protection against challenge with IBDV. Meanwhile the vaccinated non-thymus treated group exhibited 80% protection against IBDV challenge. These results indicate a potentiating effect of thymus extract on the immune system in baby chick. These findings are supported by ELISA results that showed a marked increase in antibody titers in thymus treated groups. Additionally, microscopical examination of the bursa and the existent lymphoid hyperplasia in thymus treated groups but not vaccinated group support our findings. (+info)
Development of B cells expressing surface immunoglobulin molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants in the avian embryo bursa of fabricius.
Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in avian B cell precursors generates surface Ig receptors of limited diversity. It has been proposed that specificities encoded by these receptors play a critical role in B lineage development by recognizing endogenous ligands within the bursa of Fabricius. To address this issue directly we have introduced a truncated surface IgM, lacking variable region domains, into developing B precursors by retroviral gene transfer in vivo. Cells expressing this truncated receptor lack endogenous surface IgM, and the low level of endogenous Ig rearrangements that have occurred within this population of cells has not been selected for having a productive reading frame. Such cells proliferate rapidly within bursal epithelial buds of normal morphology. In addition, despite reduced levels of endogenous light chain rearrangement, those light chain rearrangements that have occurred have undergone variable region diversification by gene conversion. Therefore, although surface expression of an Ig receptor is required for bursal colonization and the induction of gene conversion, the specificity encoded by the prediversified receptor is irrelevant and, consequently, there is no obligate ligand for V(D)J-encoded determinants of prediversified avian cell surface IgM receptor. (+info)
Efficient antibody diversification by gene conversion in vivo in the absence of selection for V(D)J-encoded determinants.
Antibody diversification in the bursa of Fabricius occurs by gene conversion: pseudogene-derived sequences replace homologous sequences in rearranged immunoglobulin genes. Bursal cells expressing a truncated immunoglobulin mu heavy chain, introduced by retroviral gene transfer, bypass normal requirements for endogenous surface immunoglobulin expression. Immunoglobulin light chain rearrangements in such cells undergo gene conversion under conditions where the products are not selected based on their ability to encode a functional protein. The efficiency with which gene conversion maintains a productive reading frame exceeds 97% under such non-selective conditions. By analysis of donor pseudogene usage we demonstrate that bursal cell development is not driven by a restricted set of antigenic specificities. We further demonstrate that gene conversion can restore a productive reading frame to out-of-frame VJ(L) junctions, providing a rationale for the elimination of cells containing non-productive VJ(L) rearrangements prior to the onset of gene conversion in normal bursal cell development. (+info)
Effects of antioxidants on induction of apoptosis in bursal cells of Fabricius during in vitro cultivation.
After physically disrupting cell contacts, apoptosis of bursal cells of Fabricius was induced during in vitro cultivation. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with incubation time and approximately 70% cells represented apoptosis after 6 hr of incubation. The induction of apoptosis was significantly inhibited by treatment of the cells with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), but not with trolox, a vitamin E analog. An intense DNA ladder pattern was shown at 6 hr post-isolation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Treatment of the cells with ascorbic acid inhibited the DNA fragmentation, but trolox did not. To monitor the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), the intensity of fluorescence emitted from DCFH-DA was measured. The intensity of fluorescence from cells incubated for 0.5-2 hr was approximately 2-fold higher than that from cells at 0 hr. The relative intensity of fluorescence decreased immediately after the addition of ascorbic acid to the cells. The intensity from the cells treated with ascorbic acid was 20-30% of that from the control cells at each incubation time. For trolox, the intensity was 50-70% of that from the control cells at each 1 to 2 hr incubation time. When ROSs-induced lipid peroxidation was assessed using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule, lipid peroxidation was found to occur in the control cells after isolation of the bursal cells. Treatment of the cells with trolox reduced lipid peroxidation, but treatment with ascorbic acid enhanced peroxidation. (+info)
Perinatal deletion of B cells expressing surface Ig molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants in the bursa of Fabricius is not due to intrafollicular competition.
During embryonic development, the avian bursa of Fabricius selects B cell precursors that have undergone productive V(D)J recombination for expansion in oligoclonal follicles. During this expansion, Ig diversity is generated by gene conversion. We have used retroviral gene transfer in vivo to introduce surface Ig molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants into B cell precursors. This truncated mu heavy chain supports both B cell expansion within embryo bursal lymphoid follicles and gene conversion. We show that individual follicles can be colonized exclusively by cells expressing the truncated mu chain and lacking endogenous surface IgM, ruling out a requirement for V(D)J-encoded determinants in the establishment of bursal lymphoid follicles. In striking contrast to their normal development in the embryo, bursal cells expressing the truncated mu-chain exhibit reduced rates of cell division and increased levels of apoptosis after hatching. The level of apoptosis in individual follicles reflects the proportion of cells within the follicle that express the truncated mu-chain. In particular, high levels of apoptosis are associated with follicles containing exclusively cells expressing the truncated micro receptor. Thus, apoptotic elimination of such cells is not due to competition within the follicle by cells expressing endogenous surface IgM receptors. This provides the first direct demonstration that the regulation of B cell development in the avian bursa after hatching differs fundamentally from that seen in the embryo. The requirement for intact IgM expression when the bursa is exposed to exogenous Ag implicates a role for Ag in avian B cell development after hatching. (+info)