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(1/1897) Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma.

Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC.  (+info)

(2/1897) Differential expression and phosphorylation of CTCF, a c-myc transcriptional regulator, during differentiation of human myeloid cells.

CTCF is a transcriptional repressor of the c-myc gene. Although CTCF has been characterized in some detail, there is very little information about the regulation of CTCF activity. Therefore we investigated CTCF expression and phosphorylation during induced differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells. We found that: (i) both CTCF mRNA and protein are down-regulated during terminal differentiation in most cell lines tested; (ii) CTCF down-regulation is retarded and less pronounced than that of c-myc; (iii) CTCF protein is differentially phosphorylated and the phosphorylation profiles depend on the differentiation pathway. We concluded that CTCF expression and activity is controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.  (+info)

(3/1897) Involvement of wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein in B-cell cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase pathway.

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been shown to play a role in normal B-lymphocyte development. Defective expression of Btk leads to human and murine immunodeficiencies. However, the exact role of Btk in the cytoplasmic signal transduction in B cells is still unclear. This study represents a search for the substrate for Btk in vivo. We identified one of the major phosphoproteins associated with Btk in the preB cell line NALM6 as the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), the gene product responsible for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, which is another hereditary immunodeficiency with distinct abnormalities in hematopoietic cells. We demonstrated that WASP was transiently tyrosine-phosphorylated after B-cell antigen receptor cross-linking on B cells, suggesting that WASP is located downstream of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. An in vivo reconstitution system demonstrated that WASP is physically associated with Btk and can serve as the substrate for Btk. A protein binding assay suggested that the tyrosine-phosphorylation of WASP alters the association between WASP and a cellular protein. Furthermore, identification of the phosphorylation site of WASP in reconstituted cells allowed us to evaluate the catalytic specificity of Btk, the exact nature of which is still unknown.  (+info)

(4/1897) Analysis of the interaction of monoclonal antibodies with surface IgM on neoplastic B-cells.

In vitro studies identified three Burkitts lymphoma cell lines, Ramos, MUTU-I and Daudi, that were growth inhibited by anti-IgM antibody. However, only Ramos and MUTU-I were sensitive to monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing the Fc region of surface IgM (anti-Fc mu). Experiments using anti-Fc mu mAb (single or non-crossblocking pairs), polyclonal anti-mu Ab, and hyper-crosslinking with a secondary layer of Ab, showed that growth inhibition of B-cell lines was highly dependent on the extent of IgM crosslinking. This was confirmed by using Fab', F(ab')2 and F(ab')3 derivatives from anti-Fc mu mAb, where increasing valency caused corresponding increases in growth arrest and apoptosis, presumably as a result of more efficient BCR-crosslinking on the cell surface. The ability of a single mAb to induce growth arrest was highly dependent on epitope specificity, with mAb specific for the Fc region (C mu2-C mu4 domains) being much more effective than those recognizing the Fab region (anti-L chain, anti-Id and anti-Fd mu, or C mu1). Only when hyper-crosslinked with polyclonal anti-mouse IgG did the latter result in appreciable growth inhibition. Binding studies showed that these differences in function were not related to differences in the affinity, but probably related to intrinsic crosslinking capacity of mAb.  (+info)

(5/1897) Differential responses to CD40 ligation among Burkitt lymphoma lines that are uniformly responsive to Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1.

Ligation of CD40 on the surface of B cells induces multiple phenotypic effects, many of which are mimicked by the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) through its interaction with downstream components of the CD40 signaling pathway. Because the effects of LMP1 have been most closely studied in human Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) cell lines retaining a tumor biopsy-like phenotype in vitro, we have examined the response of a panel of such lines to CD40 ligation. Two distinct patterns of response were observed that were unrelated to the surface level of CD40 or to the EBV genome status of the lines. Following exposure to either CD40-specific mAbs or the soluble trimeric ligand (sCD40L), high responder (HR) lines showed rapid aggregation, activation of NF-kappa B, up-regulation of cell surface markers ICAM-1/CD54 and Fas/CD95, and growth inhibition. Aggregation was seen at lower doses than those required to elicit the other effects. By contrast, low responder (LR) lines showed no detectable response to CD40 mAbs, while their responses to sCD40L were limited to activation of NF-kappa B and up-regulation of CD95 only. However, in transfection experiments, LMP1 uniformly induced the full spectrum of phenotypic effects in both HR and LR lines. We conclude that some BL cell lines show a highly restricted response to CD40 ligation but remain fully susceptible to LMP1.  (+info)

(6/1897) Restricted low-level human antibody responses against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 in a subgroup of patients with EBV-associated diseases.

Human antibody responses to latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related disease syndromes were analyzed in detail. Only by immunoblot analysis with purified recombinant LMP1 and by IFA on recombinant LMP1-expressing insect cells could human antibodies directed against LMP1 be detected. Low serum levels of LMP1-directed antibodies could be detected in 3 of 8 EBV-positive Hodgkin's disease patients, 3 of 40 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, 2 of 23 Burkitt's lymphoma patients, and 1 of 27 non-Burkitt's lymphoma patients. No LMP1-directed antibodies could be detected in healthy EBV carriers, infectious mononucleosis patients, or patients with chronic EBV disease. All sera contained significant levels of EBV antibodies directed against the immunodominant EBV proteins and peptides. From this study, it can be concluded that LMP1 is a protein with a very low immunogenicity for the humoral immune response in humans.  (+info)

(7/1897) Induction of lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in EBV-associated malignancies using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo.

The consistent presence of EBV genomes in certain tumor types (in particular, AIDS-related central nervous system lymphomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas) may allow novel, EBV-based targeting strategies. Tumors contain the latent (transforming) form of EBV infection. However, expression of either of the EBV immediate-early proteins, BZLF1 and BRLF1, is sufficient to induce lytic EBV infection, resulting in death of the host cell. We have constructed replication-deficient adenovirus vectors expressing the BZLF1 or BRLF1 immediate-early genes and examined their utility for killing latently infected lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that both the BZLF1 and BRLF1 vectors efficiently induce lytic EBV infection in Jijoye cells (an EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma cell line). Furthermore, lytic EBV infection converts the antiviral drug, ganciclovir (GCV), into a toxic (phosphorylated) form, which inhibits cellular as well as viral DNA polymerase. When Jijoye cells are infected with the BZLF1 or BRLF1 adenovirus vectors in the presence of GCV, viral reactivation is induced, but virus replication is inhibited (thus preventing the release of infectious EBV particles); yet cells are still efficiently killed. Finally, we demonstrate that the BZLF1 and BRLF1 adenovirus vectors induce lytic EBV infection when they are directly inoculated into Jijoye cell tumors grown in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These results suggest that induction of lytic EBV infection in tumors, in combination with GCV, may be an effective strategy for treating EBV-associated malignancies.  (+info)

(8/1897) Deregulation of the proto-oncogene c-myc through t(8;22) translocation in Burkitt's lymphoma.

In Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells the proto-oncogene c-myc is juxtaposed to one of the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci on chromosomes 2, 14, or 22. The c-myc gene becomes transcriptionally activated as a consequence of the chromosomal translocation and shows preferential usage of promoter P1 over P2, a phenomenon referred to as promoter shift. In order to define the responsible regulatory elements within the Ig lambda locus, we studied the effect of the human Ig lambda enhancer (HuE lambda) on c-myc expression after stable transfection into BL cells. A 12 kb genomic fragment encompassing HuE lambda, but not HuE lambda alone, strongly activated c-myc expression and induced the promoter shift. To identify additional elements involved in c-myc deregulation, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive sites within the 12 kb lambda fragment on the construct. Besides one hypersensitive site corresponding to HuE lambda, three additional sites were detected. Two of these elements displayed enhancer activity after transient transfection. The third element did not activate c-myc transcription, but was required for full c-myc activation and promoter shift. Deletion analyses of the c-myc promoter identified the immediate promoter region as sufficient for activation by the Ig lambda. locus, but also revealed that induction of the promoter shift requires additional upstream elements.  (+info)