B-cell proliferation activity of pectic polysaccharide from a medicinal herb, the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L. and its structural requirement.
Pectic polysaccharide fraction (BR-2) containing pharmacologically active pectic polysaccharide, bupleuran 2IIc, which was prepared from a medicinal herb, the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L., was administered orally to C3H/HeJ mice for 7 consecutive days. Proliferative responses of spleen cells were enhanced in the presence of the purified pectic polysaccharide, bupleuran 2IIc, but another B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not give a similar effect. In vitro studies using spleen cells showed that bupleuran 2IIc also stimulated lymphocytes, depleted of adherent cells or T cells. Bupleuran 2IIc treatment increased subpopulation of CD25+ and surface immunoglobulin M-positive (sIgM+) lymphocytes. Non-specific immunoglobulin secretion of spleen cells treated with bupleuran 2IIc was increased according to the culture time, and coexistence of interleukin-6 (IL-6) enhanced the secretion more than that of bupleuran 2IIc alone. These results suggest that bupleuran 2IIc proliferates B cells in the absence of macrophages, and the resulting activated B cells are then induced into antibody-forming cells in the presence of IL-6. Among the structural region of bupleuran 2IIc, ramified region (PG-1), which consists of rhamnogalacturonan core rich in neutral sugar chain, showed the potent mitogenic activity suggesting it to be an active site. Mitogenic activity of bupleuran 2IIc was reduced in the presence of antipolysaccharide antibody (antibupleuran 2IIc/PG-1-IgG), which recognizes the ramified region of bupleuran 2IIc as the antigenic epitope. Mitogenic activity of bupleuran 2IIc was also reduced by the addition of beta-d-GlcpA-(1-->6)-beta-d-Galp-(1-->6)-d-Galp or beta-d-GlcpA-(1-->6)-d-Galp, which are a part of the epitopes of antibupleuran 2IIc/PG-1-IgG. These results suggest that the epitopes in bupleuran 2IIc act as active sites of the polysaccharide during mitogenic activity. (+info)
Purification of saponin compounds in Bupleurum falcatum by solvent partitioning and preparative LC.
Saponin compounds (saikosaponin c, a, and d) in Bupleurum falcatum were partially purified by solvent partitioning of the herbal extract using diethyl ether, distilled water, n-butanol, and acetone. After separation of the saponins by preparative LC, the purity of each saikosaponin was more than 94%. The identities of purified individual saikosaponins were confirmed by TLC, analytical LC, and fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry. (+info)
Effects of a herbal compound containing bupleurum on human lymphocytes.
Bupleurum-containing compounds, such as KY88 Liver Livo are thought to have immunomodulatory effects. This study investigated the effects of KY88 Liver Livo on the mitogenic induction of lymphocytes in vitro. Fifteen healthy human adult volunteers, aged between 20 and 50 years, provided peripheral blood samples from which lymphocytes were obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation. The separated lymphocytes were stimulated by phytohaemagglutinin and KY88 Liver Livo in varying concentrations for 72 hours, with greater cluster and colony formation evident compared with lymphocytes in a control preparation. KY88 Liver Livo was also found to induce the secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in a dose-dependent fashion. These preliminary in vitro studies suggest that KY88 Liver Livo may have potential clinical value in the treatment of chronic viral infection and in the management of immunocompromised patients. (+info)
Cytokine production by human lymphocytes stimulated by a herbal compound containing Bupleurum (KY88 LIVER LIVO).
AIM: Compounds containing Bupleurum possess immunomodulating effects. KY88 LIVER LIVO (KY88) is a blend of such compound. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of KY88 on the production of cytokines by lymphocytes in vitro. METHODS: Seventy Sprague Dawley rats were used of which 40 were orally fed with 4 mg purified KY88 for 35 d. Normal human lymphocytes were isolated and cultured in standard conditions. The culture medium was collected at zero and 72 h after the KY88 treatment. The cytokines, including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interferon-gamma, were measured by ELISA kits. RESULTS: TNF-alpha levels in the supernatant of cultured human lymphocytes significantly increased after the treatment of PHA and KY88. The mean levels were (855+/-251), (399+/-145), and (176+/-49) ng/L after the treatment with KY88 at the concentrations of 10, 1 and 0.1 g/mL respectively. However, the level in the control group without specific treatment was only (68+/-4) ng/L. The difference between KY88 10 g/mL and control groups was significant (P<0.05). All other cytokines did not show significant variations between KY88 and the control groups. KY88 may regulate the immune function through the induction of TNF-alpha expression. (+info)
Antiproliferative constituents from Umbelliferae plants VI. New ursane-type saikosaponin analogs from the fruits of Bupleurum rotundifolium.
The MeOH extract of the fruits of Bupleurum rotundifolium showed inhibitory activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1) cell growth (GI(50): 6.25 microg/ml). From this extract, 10 new ursane-type triterpene glycosides viz. three 3-O-triosides (called rotundifoliosides A, I, and J) of 13beta,28-epoxy-3beta,16alpha-dihydroxyurs-11-ene, two (G and H) of 13beta,28-epoxy-3beta,16alpha,23-trihydroxyurs-11-ene, two (E and F) of 13beta,28-epoxy-3beta,16alpha,21beta-trihydroxyurs-11-ene, two (B and C) of 3beta,11alpha,16alpha,28-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene, and one (D) of 3beta,11alpha,28-trihydroxy-15alpha,16alpha-epoxyurs-12-ene were isolated in addition to 16 new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides (rotundiosides J-Y), echinocystic acid 3-O-sulfate and 3 known oleanane-type triterpene glycosides (rotundiosides A, F and G). The isolation, structures and antiproliferative activity of the new ursane-type triterpene glycosides against MK-1, human uterus carcinoma (HeLa), and murine melanoma (B16F10) cell lines are described with some comments on the structural requirements for their activity. (+info)
Development of an assay system for saikosaponin a using anti-saikosaponin a monoclonal antibodies.
For immunization, saikosaponin a (SSa) was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The hapten number in an antigen conjugate was determined to be eleven by matrix-assisted laser adsorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF Mass). Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against SSa were produced by fusing splenocytes immunized with SSa-BSA conjugate and a hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine-sensitive (HAT) mouse myeloma cell line, P3-X63-Ag8-653. A high specific MAb against SSa was selected from hybridomas using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Weak cross-reactivities occurred with saikosaponin c, b(2) and d, which are stereochemical and/or functional isomers of SSa, but no cross-reactivities were observed with other related steroidal glycosides. The full range of the assay extends 26 ng/ml to 1.5 microg/ml of SSa. Good correlation of SSa concentrations in a crude extract of Bupleuri radix between ELISA and HPLC methods was obtained after hydrolysis of acyl saikosaponins by treatment with a mild alkaline solution. The newly established ELISA has been applied for the quantitative assay of SSa in the Bupleuri radix and the Kampo medicines (TCM) prescribed with Bupleuri radix. (+info)
Phylogenetic relationships in Bupleurum (apiaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA its sequence data.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The genus Bupleurum has long been recognized as a natural group, but its infrageneric classification is controversial and has not yet been studied in the light of sequence data. METHODS: Phylogenetic relationships among 32 species (35 taxa) of the genus Bupleurum were investigated by comparative sequencing of the ITS region of the 18-26S nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat. Exemplar taxa from all currently accepted sections and subsections of the genus were included, along with outgroups from four other early branching Apioideae genera (Anginon, Heteromorpha, Physospermum and Pleurospermum). RESULTS: Phylogenies generated by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbour-joining methods show similar topologies, demonstrating monophyly of Bupleurum and the division of the genus into two major clades. This division is also supported by analysis of the 5.8S coding sequence alone. The first branching clade is formed by all the species of the genus with pinnate-reticulate veined leaves and B. rigidum with a unique type of leaf venation. The other major clade includes the remaining species studied, all of which have more or less parallel-veined leaves. CONCLUSIONS: These phylogenetic results do not agree with any previous classifications of the genus. Molecular data also suggest that the endemic Macaronesian species B. salicifolium is a neoendemic, as the sequence divergence between the populations in Madeira and Canary Islands, and closer mainland relatives in north-west Africa is small. All endemic north-west African taxa are included in a single unresolved but well-supported clade, and the low nucleotide variation of ITS suggests a recent radiation within this group. The only southern hemisphere species, B. mundii (southern Africa), is shown to be a neoendemic, apparently closely related to B. falcatum, a Eurasian species. (+info)
Seasonal branch nutrient dynamics in two Mediterranean woody shrubs with contrasted phenology.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mediterranean woody plants have a wide variety of phenological strategies. Some authors have classified the Mediterranean phanaerophytes into two broad phenological categories: phenophase-overlappers (that overlap resource-demanding activities in a short period of the year) and phenophase-sequencers (that protract resource-demanding activities throughout the year). In this work the impact of both phenological strategies on leaf nutrient accumulation and retranslocation dynamics at the level of leaves and branches was evaluated. Phenophase-overlappers were expected to accumulate nutrients in leaves throughout most of the year and withdraw them efficiently in a short period. Phenophase-sequencers were expected to withdraw nutrients progressively throughout the year, without long accumulation periods. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, variations in phenology and leaf NPK in the crown of a phenophase-overlapper Cistus laurifolius and a phenophase-sequencer Bupleurum fruticosum were monitored monthly during 2 years. KEY RESULTS: Changes in nutrient concentration at the leaf level were not clearly related with the different phenologies. Nitrogen and phosphorous resorption efficiencies were lower in the phenophase-overlapper, and accumulation-retranslocation seasonality was similar in both species. Changes in the branch nutrient pool agreed with the hypothesis that the phenophase-overlapper accumulated nutrients from summer until the bud burst of the following spring, recovering a large nutrient pool during massive leaf shedding. The phenophase-sequencer did not accumulate nutrients from autumn until early spring, achieving lower nutrient recovery during spring leaf shedding. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that phenological demands influence branch nutrient cycling. This effect is easier to detect by assessing changes in the branch nutrient pool rather than changes in the leaf nutrient concentration. (+info)