Transient association of calnexin and calreticulin with newly synthesized G1 and G2 glycoproteins of uukuniemi virus (family Bunyaviridae).
The membrane glycoproteins G1 and G2 of Uukuniemi virus, a member of the Bunyaviridae family, are cotranslationally cleaved from a common precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we show that newly made G1 and G2 associate transiently with calnexin and calreticulin, two lectins involved in glycoprotein folding in the ER. Stable complexes between G1-G2 and calnexin or calreticulin could be immunoprecipitated after solubilization of virus-infected BHK21 cells with the detergents digitonin or Triton X-100. In addition, G1-G2-calnexin complexes could be recovered after solubilization with CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate), while G1-G2-calreticulin complexes were not readily detected by using this detergent. Only endoglycosidase H-sensitive forms of G1 were found complexed with calnexin. Pulse-chase experiments showed that G1 and G2 associated with both chaperones transiently for up to 120 min. Sequential immunoprecipitations with anticalreticulin and anticalnexin antisera indicated that about 50% of newly synthesized G1 and G2 was associated with either calnexin or calreticulin. Our previous results have shown that newly synthesized G1 and G2 transiently interact also with the ER chaperone BiP and with protein disulfide isomerase (R. Persson and R. F. Pettersson, J. Cell Biol. 112:257-266, 1991). Taking all of this into consideration, we conclude that the folding of G1 and G2 in the ER is catalyzed by at least four different folding factors. (+info)
Potential for evolution of California serogroup bunyaviruses by genome reassortment in Aedes albopictus.
Aedes albopictus was introduced into the United States in used tires in 1985. Its successful colonization of the upper Midwest has potential to alter the current epidemiology of bunyaviruses that circulate in the region. It is permissive for the replication of several arboviruses, including La Crosse (LACV) and Jamestown Canyon (JCV) bunyaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of LACV and JCV to coinfect Ae. albopictus mosquitoes and to form all six possible reassortant genotypes. All reassortant viruses infect Ae. albopictus orally and can be transmitted to suckling mice. All reassortants are neurovirulent in mice. However, reassortant viruses carrying the LACV M segment in the foreign genetic background of JCV are more neuroinvasive than JCV, or any other reassortant genotype. In addition, these reassortants can replicate in gerbils and infect Ae. triseriatus, characteristics of LACV, but not JCV. Because Ae. albopictus is spreading into new geographic areas and feeds on a variety of mammals, including humans, it has the potential to transmit new, emerging bunyaviruses in nature. (+info)
The broad-spectrum tospovirus resistance gene Sw-5 of tomato is a homolog of the root-knot nematode resistance gene Mi.
We used a positional cloning approach to isolate the Sw-5 disease resistance locus of tomato. Complementation experiments with overlapping cosmid clones enabled us to demonstrate that Sw-5 is a single gene locus capable of recognizing several tospovirus isolates and species. Analysis of the predicted Sw-5 protein suggests that it is a cytoplasmic protein, with a potential nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain and a C-terminal end consisting of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Based on its structural features, Sw-5 belongs to the class of NBS-LRR resistance genes that includes the tomato Mi, 12, and Prf genes; the Arabidopsis RPM1 gene; and the plant potato virus X resistance gene Rx. The overall similarity between the Sw-5 and Mi proteins of tomato suggests that a shared or comparable signal transduction pathway leads to both virus and nematode resistance in tomato. The similarity also supports the hypothesis that Sw-5 provides resistance via a hypersensitive response. Sw-5 is a member of a loosely clustered gene family in the telomeric region of chromosome 9. Members of this family map to other regions of chromosome 9 and also to chromosome 12, where several fungal, virus, and nematode genes have been mapped, suggesting that paralogs of Sw-5 may have evolved to provide different resistance specificities. (+info)
Detection of Akabane viral antigens in spontaneous lymphohistiocytic encephalomyelitis in cattle.
A 5-month-old Japanese black bull calf and twenty-seven 1-27-day-old calves exhibiting neurological signs between August and October 1998 were examined. The bull calf exhibited rapid breathing, fever, hypersensitivity, and ataxia and was euthanized 4 days after the onset of symptoms. The 27 calves primarily exhibited ataxia, and 15 had arthrogryposis. Histological examination of the bull calf revealed perivascular infiltraction by mononuclear cells, diffuse to multifocal gliosis, and neuronal necrosis in the brain and spinal cord. Multiple malacic foci were found in the midbrain in 5 cases. In contrast, in the 15 calves necropsied in October, there were fewer inflammatory changes, but there was neuronal cell loss in the ventral horn and a decrease in myelinated axons in the lateral and ventral funiculi. Immunohistochemical examination using a rabbit antiserum against Akabane virus strain OBE-1 revealed a large amount of viral antigen in the degenerating neurons and glial cells of the bull calf, mainly in the spinal gray matter. Small amounts of viral antigen in swollen axons and a few glial cells were found in 5 of 27 calves. Thirteen of the 27 calves had high neutralization antibody titers against the Akabane virus, whereas there was no significant antibody titer in most of the calves necropsied during August. The present study revealed that viral antigen detection was very useful for the diagnosis of Akabane diseases in the 5-month-old bull calf that was suspected to be infected postnatally, while it had limited usefulness in the other young calves. (+info)
Overcoming host- and pathogen-mediated resistance in tomato and tobacco maps to the M RNA of Tomato spotted wilt virus.
A viral genetic system was used to map the determinants of the ability of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) to overcome the R gene (Sw-5) in tomato and the resistance conferred by the nucleocapsid gene of TSWV (N gene) in tobacco. A complete set of reassortant genotypes was generated from TSWV isolates A and D. TSWV-A was able to overcome the Sw-5 gene in tomato and the TSWV N gene in tobacco, whereas TSWV-D was repressed by both forms of resistance. The ability to overcome both forms of resistance was associated with the M RNA segment of TSWV-A (M(A)). Overcoming the Sw-5 gene was linked solely to the presence of M(A), and the ability of M(A) to overcome the TSWV N gene was modified by the L RNA and the S RNA of TSWV-A, which is consistent with previous reports that suggest that the nucleocapsid gene is not the primary determinant for overcoming the nucleocapsid-mediated resistance. Sequence analysis of the M RNA segment of TSWV-A, -D, and the type isolate BR-01 revealed multiple differences in the coding and noncoding regions, which prevented identification of the resistance-breaking nucleotide sequences. (+info)
Activity of Toscana and Rift Valley fever virus transcription complexes on heterologous templates.
A transcription system for Toscana virus (TOSV) (a member of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE:, genus PHLEBOVIRUS:) was constructed. For in vivo expression, the TOSV transcription system uses the viral N and L proteins and an S-like RNA genome containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in the antisense orientation flanked by the viral genomic 5'- and 3'-terminal S sequences. It was found that the N and L proteins represent the minimal protein requirement for an active transcription complex. To investigate the possibility of reassortment between TOSV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the activity of their polymerase complexes was tested on their heterologous S-like RNA genomes and this showed that both virus complexes were active. Moreover, hybrid transcriptase complexes with protein components originating from the two viruses were tested on both virus templates and only the combination RVFV L + TOSV N on RVFV S-like RNA was found to be active in this assay. These results suggest that virus reassortants might be generated whenever the two viruses infect the same host. (+info)
Ultrastructural, antigenic and physicochemical characterization of the Mojui dos Campos (Bunyavirus) isolated from bat in the Brazilian Amazon region.
The Mojui dos Campos virus (MDCV) was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera) captured in Mojui dos Campos, Santarem, State of Para, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i), and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup. (+info)
Serologic survey of cattle in the northeastern and north central United States, Virginia, Alaska, and Hawaii for antibodies to Cache Valley and antigenically related viruses (Bunyamwera serogroup virus).
Bovine sera from northeastern states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and West Virginia), north central states (Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin), Virginia, Alaska, and Hawaii were examined for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to Cache Valley (CV), Lokern (LK), Main Drain (MD), Northway (NW), and Tensaw (TS) viruses. Microneutralization tests were performed using Vero cells. Ninety percent inhibition of the virus at a 1:10 serum dilution was considered positive for the presence of specific antibody. Sera having antibody to more than one virus were titrated from 1:10 to 1:640. The results indicated that 4-28% of the cattle per region had specific antibodies to CV virus. Neutralizing antibodies to NW, LK, and TS viruses were also detected, indicating possible exposure to these Bunyamwera serogroup viruses along with CV virus. Antibody titers measured against NW virus were very similar to those against CV virus. Antibodies to MD virus were present in low levels in bovine sera from Illinois, Maryland, and Ohio. Cattle from Alaska had only antibodies to NW virus. Antibodies to Bunyamwera serogroup viruses were not observed in sera from Hawaii. (+info)