Presence of sorbin in human digestive tract and endocrine digestive tumours. (1/55)

BACKGROUND: Sorbin, a 153 amino acid peptide isolated from porcine intestine, was localised by immunohistochemistry in endocrine cells of the intestinal mucosa and pancreas and in the enteric nervous system in the pig. AIMS: To identify sorbin cells in normal human digestive tissues and to explore the expression of sorbin in 37 digestive endocrine tumours: 14 intestinal carcinoid tumours and 23 endocrine pancreatic tumours including six insulinomas. METHODS: Two polyclonal antibodies against the C-terminal and the N-terminal sequences of porcine sorbin raised in rabbit were used to evaluate sorbin expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In the human digestive tract, sorbin, characterised by both C-terminal and N-terminal immunoreactivity, was found in enterochromaffin cells of the gastric and intestinal epithelium from the pyloric junction to the descending colon. C-Terminal sorbin immunoreactivity alone was found in plexii from the enteric nervous system and in some insulin-containing cells of normal pancreas. C-Terminal and N-terminal antibodies disclosed sorbin in five of 14 intestinal carcinoid tumours; C-terminal antibody alone disclosed a C-terminal sorbin peptide in two of six insulinomas and three of 17 endocrine pancreatic tumours. The presence of sorbin was not associated with a specific clinical syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Sorbin is present in the digestive tract in several forms. It is expressed in some intestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumours.  (+info)

A novel in vitro model of Brunner's gland secretion in the guinea pig duodenum. (2/55)

A novel in vitro model that combined functional and morphological techniques was employed to directly examine pathways regulating Brunner's gland secretion in isolation from epithelium. In vitro submucosal preparations were dissected from guinea pig duodenum. A videomicroscopy technique was used to measure changes in luminal diameter of glandular acini as an index of activation of secretion. Carbachol elicited concentration-dependent dilations of the lumen (EC(50) = 2 microM) by activating muscarinic receptors on acinar cells. Ultrastructural and histological analyses demonstrated that dilation was accompanied by single and compound exocytosis of mucin-containing granules and the accumulation of mucoid material within the lumen. Inflammatory mediators (histamine, PGE(1), PGE(2)) and intestinal hormones (CCK, gastrin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, secretin) also stimulated glandular secretion, whereas activation of submucosal secretomotor neurons by 5-hydroxytryptamine did not. This study directly demonstrates that multiple hormonal, inflammatory, and neurocrine agents activate Brunner's glands, whereas many have dissimilar effects on the epithelium. This suggests that Brunner's glands are regulated by pathways that act both in parallel to and in isolation from those controlling epithelial secretion.  (+info)

A histochemical study of the camel (Camelus bactrianus) duodenal glands. (3/55)

The complex carbohydrates in the camel duodenal glands were examined histochemically at light and electron microscopic levels. The duodenal glands of the camel were distributed in the submucosa 2 m caudal from the pylorus. These were branched tubuloalveolar glands. The terminal portion of each lobule was formed by only one type of mucous cell. The duodenal gland cells contained acidic and neutral carbohydrates. The mucous cells mainly contained sulfate and carboxyl carbohydrate with sialic acid, and they also contained a few neutral carbohydrates with different saccharide residues such as mannose, glucose, galactose, N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetyl galactosamine. The results showed that the secretary granules of the duodenal glands in the camel contain mainly acidic carbohydrates. These findings seem to be the morphological characteristics of the duodenal glands in the camel.  (+info)

Dynamic regulation of mucus gel thickness in rat duodenum. (4/55)

We examined the dynamic regulation of mucus gel thickness (MGT) in vivo in rat duodenum in response to luminal acid, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition, and exogenous PGE(2). An in vivo microscopic technique was used to measure MGT with fluorescent microspheres in urethan-anesthetized rats. Duodenal mucosa was topically superfused with pH 7.0 or pH 2.2 solutions with or without PGE(2) and indomethacin treatments. Glycoprotein concentration of duodenal loop perfusates was measured with periodic acid/Schiff (PAS) or Alcian blue (AB) staining. MGT and perfusate glycoprotein concentration were stable during a 35-min perfusion with pH 7.0 solution. Acid exposure increased MGT and PAS- and AB-positive perfusate glycoprotein concentrations. Indomethacin pretreatment increased both PAS- and AB-positive perfusate glycoprotein at baseline; subsequent acid superfusion decreased perfusate glycoproteins and gel thickness. PGE(2) (1 mg/kg iv) simultaneously increased MGT and PAS-positive perfusate glycoprotein concentrations followed by a transient increase in AB-positive glycoprotein concentration, suggesting contributions from goblet cells and Brunner's glands. Parallel changes in MGT and perfusate glycoprotein concentration in response to luminal acid and PGE(2) suggest that rapid MGT variations reflect alterations in the balance between mucus secretion and exudation, which in turn are regulated by a COX-related pathway. Luminal acid and PGE(2) augment mucus secretion from goblet cells and Brunner's glands.  (+info)

Neural pathways regulating Brunner's gland secretion in guinea pig duodenum in vitro. (5/55)

This study examined the neural pathways innervating Brunner's glands using a novel in vitro model of acinar secretion from Brunner's glands in submucosal preparations from the guinea pig duodenum. Neural pathways were activated by focal electrical stimulation and excitatory agonists, and videomicroscopy was used to monitor dilation of acinar lumen. Electrical stimulation of perivascular nerves evoked large dilations that were blocked by TTX (1 microM) or the muscarinic receptor antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-(2-chloroethyl)-piperidine hydrochloride (1 microM). The nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (100 microM) had no effect, and the nerve-evoked responses were not inhibited by hexamethonium (200 microM). Dilations were abolished in preparations from chronically vagotomized animals. Activation of submucosal ganglia significantly dilated submucosal arterioles but not Brunner's glands. Effects of electrical stimulation of perivascular and submucosal nerves were not altered by guanethidine. Capsaicin and substance P also dilated arterioles but had no effect on Brunner's glands. Cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive) nerve fibers were found in Brunner's glands. These findings demonstrate that Brunner's glands are innervated by cholinergic vagal fibers but not by capsaicin-sensitive or intrinsic enteric nerves.  (+info)

Endoscopic resection of a large Brunner's gland adenoma. (6/55)

Brunner's gland adenoma is a rare benign tumour of the duodenum. Less than 150 cases have been reported in English literature. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with upper gastrointestinal obstructive symptoms and melena. Duodenoscopy revealed a large pedunculated tumour in the bulbus duodeni. Endoscopic snare polypectomy was successfully performed. Histological examination revealed a Brunner's gland adenoma. The literature on Brunner's gland adenoma is reviewed.  (+info)

Malignant potential in a Brunner's gland hamartoma. (7/55)

Brunner's gland hamartomas are rare tumours of the duodenum. These lesions have previously been described as being benign, with no malignant potential. A case report is presented of a Brunner's gland hamartoma, whose histology revealed a focus of well marked epithelial dysplasia. This case suggests a dysplastic stage in the natural history of Brunner's gland hamartoma, and questions the malignant potential of these lesions.  (+info)

Potassium currents regulating secretion from Brunner's glands in guinea pig duodenum. (8/55)

This study examined the role of outward K(+) currents in the acinar cells underlying secretion from Brunner's glands in guinea pig duodenum. Intracellular recordings were made from single acinar cells in intact acini in in vitro submucosal preparations, and videomicroscopy was employed in the same preparation to correlate these measures with secretion. Mean resting membrane potential was -74 mV and was depolarized by high external K(+) (20 mM) and the K(+) channel blockers 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), quinine, and clotrimazole. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (60-2,000 nM; EC(50) = 200 nM) caused a concentration-dependent initial hyperpolarization of the membrane and an associated decrease in input resistance. This hyperpolarization was significantly decreased by 20 mM external K(+) or membrane hyperpolarization and increased by 1 mM external K(+) or membrane depolarization. It was blocked by the K(+) channel blockers tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-AP, quinine, and clotrimazole but not iberiotoxin. When videomicroscopy was employed to measure dilation of acinar lumen in the same preparation, carbachol-evoked dilations were altered in a parallel fashion when external K(+) was altered. The dilations were also blocked by the K(+) channel blockers TEA, 4-AP, quinine, and clotrimazole but not iberiotoxin. These findings suggest that activation of outward K(+) currents is fundamental to the initiation of secretion from these glands, consistent with the model of K(+) efflux from the basolateral membrane providing the driving force for secretion. The pharmacological profile suggests that these K(+) channels belong to the intermediate conductance group.  (+info)