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(1/132) Tracheobronchial malacia and stenosis in children in intensive care: bronchograms help to predict oucome.

BACKGROUND: Severe tracheobronchial malacia and stenosis are important causes of morbidity and mortality in children in intensive care, but little is known about how best to diagnose these conditions or determine their prognosis. METHODS: The records of all 62 children in whom one or both of these conditions had been diagnosed by contrast cinetracheobronchography in our intensive care unit in the period 1986-95 were studied. RESULTS: Seventy four per cent of the 62 children had congenital heart disease; none was a preterm baby with airways disease associated with prolonged ventilation. Fifteen of the children had airway stenosis without malacia; three died because of the stenosis and two died from other causes. Twenty eight of the 47 children with malacia died; only eight children survived without developmental or respiratory handicap. All children needing ventilation for malacia for longer than 14 consecutive days died if their bronchogram showed moderate or severe malacia of either main bronchus (15 cases), or malacia of any severity of both bronchi (three additional cases); all children needing ventilation for malacia for longer than 21 consecutive days died if their bronchogram showed malacia of any severity of the trachea or a main bronchus (three additional cases). These findings were strongly associated with a fatal outcome (p<0.00005); they were present in 21 children (all of whom died) and absent in 26 (of whom seven died, six from non-respiratory causes). They had a positive predictive value for death of 100%, but the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval was 83.9% so up to 16% of patients meeting the criteria might survive. CONCLUSION: In this series the findings on contrast cinetracheobronchography combined with the duration of ventilation provided a useful guide to the prognosis of children with tracheobronchomalacia. The information provided by bronchoscopy was less useful.  (+info)

(2/132) Primary bronchomalacia and patent ductus arteriosus: simultaneous surgical correction in an infant.

We report the clinical course of a 6-month-old girl with recurrent infection of the left lung, persistent wheezing, and a suspected congenital heart anomaly (patent ductus arteriosus. Chest radiography revealed hyperinflation and slight inflammation of the left lung. Tracheobronchoscopy and left-sided bronchography showed a collapsed segment of the left main bronchus, 3 cm long. Computed tomography confirmed hyperinflation of the left lung and atelectasis of the superior lobe. There were no signs of extramural compression. Color-flow Doppler echocardiography confirmed the suspicion of patent ductus arteriosus. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other report in the literature of a patient with this combination of anomalies. After receiving 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment, the patient underwent surgical repair The patent ductus arteriosus was closed by means of a triple-ligature procedure, and during the same operation a bronchopexy was performed, securing the left main bronchus to the closed ductus tissue by means of sutures. There have been no complications in the postoperative period. Clinical follow-up, as well as echocardiography and bronchoscopy, have yielded normal results 14 months after surgery.  (+info)

(3/132) Bronchial atresia with transient spontaneous disappearance of a mucocele.

We report the transient spontaneous disappearance of a mucocele due to bronchial atresia. Two years before presentation, a chest radiograph showed a hyperlucent right upper lung and a mucocele near the right hilum. A chest radiograph taken 1 year later showed that the mucocele had disappeared leaving an ovoid outline of a dilated bronchus. A chest radiograph obtained 3 months before presentation showed that the mucocele was present again. Atresia of the B3b bronchus of the right upper lobe was noted on thoracotomy. The "disappearance" of the mucocele probably was due to the clearance of mucoid material through collateral airways.  (+info)

(4/132) Mucoid impaction caused by monokaryotic mycelium of Schizophyllum commune in association with bronchiectasis.

A 51-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of fever, cough, and hemoptysis. A chest radiograph showed a partial collapse of the left upper division and infected bullae in the left upper lobe. Bronchoscopic examination showed thick mucous plugs in the left upper bronchus. The isolates of the plugs proved to be Schizophyllum commune. Neither accumulation of eosinophils nor Charcot-Leyden crystals were present in the plugs. Mild ectatic changes of the left upper bronchus had been observed 17 years previously. We describe the first case of mucoid impaction, which was independent of the immunological reactions, caused by S. commune in association with bronchiectasis.  (+info)

(5/132) Regenerative growth of respiratory bronchioles in dogs.

Loss of lung units due to pneumonectomy stimulates growth of the remaining lung. It is generally believed that regenerative lung growth involves only alveoli but not airways, a dissociated response termed "dysanaptic growth." We examined the structural response of respiratory bronchioles in immature dogs raised to maturity after right pneumonectomy. In another group of adult dogs, we also examined the effect of preventing mediastinal shift after right pneumonectomy on the response of respiratory bronchioles. In immature dogs after pneumonectomy, the volume of the remaining lung increased twofold, with no change in volume density, numerical density, or mean diameter of respiratory bronchiole, compared with that in the control lung. The number of respiratory bronchiole segments and branch points increased proportionally with lung volume. In adult dogs after pneumonectomy, prevention of mediastinal shift reduced lung strain at a given airway pressure, but lung expansion and regenerative growth of respiratory bronchiole were not eliminated. We conclude that postpneumonectomy lung growth is associated with proliferation of intra-acinar airways. The proportional growth of acinar airways and alveoli should optimize gas exchange of the regenerated lung by enhancing gas conductance and mixing efficiency within the acinus.  (+info)

(6/132) Tracheal size following tracheostomy with cuffed tracheostomy tubes: an experimental study.

In view of the severe damage caused by unyielding, low residual volume cuffs, various modifications to the cuff of an intratracheal tube have been introduced. The merits of two low-pressure cuffs were assessed in an experimental study in dogs; both cuffs produced little visible damage to the tracheal wall in dogs intubated continuously over a two-week period. A modified technique of producing tantalum tracheobronchograms without distrubing the mucous blanket or traumatizing the tracheal wall is described. These tantalum radiological studies demonstrated a progressive temporary increase in size of the trachea at cuff level over the period of intubation with these cuffs. The implications of such a progressive weakness occurring in the tracheal muscle are discussed.  (+info)

(7/132) Bronchial hysteresis in excised lungs.

1. Intrapulmonary bronchi in excised dog lungs were outlined with tantalum dust and stereoscopic radiographs taken during deflation and inflation of the lung with air, saline, Ringer or EDTA solutions. Dimensions of airways as a percentage of their values at full inflation were calculated from measurements of the stereoscopic X-ray images. 2. The mean deflation-inflation diameter difference at a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cm H2O was 20% in the air-filled lung, 9% in the saline filled preparation and 2% after filling with EDTA in saline. 3. These results show that the intrapulmonary bronchi have an intrinsic hysteresis separate from the hysteresis imposed on them by the expansion of the surrounding parenchyma. This intrinsic hysteresis is mainly due to the tone of the smooth muscle in the bronchial wall.  (+info)

(8/132) Local ablative procedures designed to destroy squamous-cell carcinoma.

In a series of experiments in dogs, the bronchial mucosa was either excised or destroyed prior to closure of a bronchial stump following a lobectomy or the reanastomosis of a divided bronchus. The experiments were designed to simulate the clinical situation in which focal areas of squamous-cell carcinoma in situ in the bronchial margin would be managed by local ablation of the mucosa rather than by excision of additional bronchus. The experiments demonstrated that the bronchial mucosa is not necessary for bronchial healing. They also demonstrated that functionally and morphologically normal bronchial epithelium regenerates across the denuded bronchus. The source of this regenerated epithelium appears to be the submucosal glands which remain in the bronchial wall after a variety of local ablative procedures. Since our clinical experience has demonstrated that these submucosal glands frequently contain small foci of squamous-cell carcinoma in situ, we have concluded that either excision or thermal destruction of the bronchial mucosa has very limited clinical application and should be considered only in patients who cannot tolerate excision of more than one lobe of the lung.  (+info)