Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation.
We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen. (+info
Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus.
Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity. (+info
RANTES, IFN-gamma, CCR1, and CCR5 mRNA expression in peripheral blood, lymph node, and bronchoalveolar lavage mononuclear cells during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques.
Primary infection of macaques with pathogenic isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (as a model of HIV infection in humans) represents a unique opportunity to study early lentivirus/host interactions. We sought to determine whether there is a temporal relationship linking SIV replication and dissemination and the expression of the chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) and the SIV/HIV coreceptor CCR5 in different tissues during acute SIV infection of macaques. Four cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a pathogenic primary isolate of SIVmac251. RT-PCR was used to monitor the expression of RANTES and CCR5 mRNA in fresh isolated mononuclear cells from blood, lymph node, and bronchoalveolar lavages. These expressions were compared to those of IFN-gamma as an indicator of the development of the immune response and to another receptor for RANTES, CCR1, which is not described as a coreceptor for SIV/HIV-1 entry. An enhancement of CCR1/CCR5 mRNA expression was noticed during primary SIVmac251 infection of macaques, mainly in tissue. In the three different compartments investigated, IFN-gamma and RANTES overexpression was noticed by the time of systemic viral replication containment. Our results put CCR5 and RANTES mRNA expression back in the context of inflammatory and immune responses to SIV primary infection. (+info
Cigarette smoking decreases interleukin-8 secretion by human alveolar macrophages.
Cigarette smoking can impair pulmonary immune function, and hence influences the development of lung diseases. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a proinflammatory peptide and a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils, and is produced by both immune and non-immune cells including monocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). We investigated the effect of cigarette smoking on the secretion of IL-8 by human AM. The IL-8 concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was much higher in smokers than in non-smokers (18.4 +/- 3.9 vs 4.1 +/- 1.0 pg ml-1; P < 0.005). However, spontaneous IL-8 secretion by cultured AM was lower in smokers than in non-smokers (46.8 +/- 12.7 vs 124.1 +/- 24.0 ng ml-1; P < 0.01). When stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), AM from smokers secreted significantly less IL-8 than those from non-smokers at all tested concentrations of LPS. In contrast, the amount of IL-8 secreted by peripheral blood monocytes with or without LPS stimulation was comparable in smokers and non-smokers. These observations indicate that smoking decreases IL-8 secretion by AM, which may modify or decrease the inflammatory response in the lung. (+info
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia.
We describe the case of a 53-year-old Philadelphia-chromosome-positive woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia, who developed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). The possible mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of PAP are discussed based on the clinical and laboratory data for this patient as well as on experimental and clinical data reported in the literature. (+info
Role of pleural lavage cytology before resection for primary lung carcinoma.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) in resection for primary lung carcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The prognostic significance of PLC before manipulation is still controversial. METHODS: Cytology of pleural lavage immediately after thoracotomy but before any manipulation of the lung was examined in 500 consecutive patients with lung cancer with no pleural effusion who underwent pulmonary resections. Eighteen patients who already had pleural dissemination were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Eighteen of 482 patients (3.7%) had positive cytologic findings. The positivity of PLC was significantly correlated with histology, extension of tumor to pleura, and presence of lymphatic permeation or vascular involvement by tumor. Positive lavage findings were seen only in adenocarcinoma. Because 6.3% of the patients with adenocarcinoma had positive cytologic findings, it is vital to perform PLC before curative resections for lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. The 5-year survival rates of the patients having negative and positive lavage findings were 52.9% and 14.6%, respectively. The prognosis of the patients with positive lavage findings was as poor as that of the patients with stage IIIB disease and that of the patients with malignant effusion. CONCLUSIONS: Positive findings on PLC indicate exfoliation of cancer cells into the pleural cavity, which is an essential prognostic factor. In addition, we should regard positive cytologic findings as a subclinical malignant pleural effusion that is pathologic stage T4. (+info
Comparison of exogenous surfactant therapy, mechanical ventilation with high end-expiratory pressure and partial liquid ventilation in a model of acute lung injury.
We have compared three treatment strategies, that aim to prevent repetitive alveolar collapse, for their effect on gas exchange, lung mechanics, lung injury, protein transfer into the alveoli and surfactant system, in a model of acute lung injury. In adult rats, the lungs were ventilated mechanically with 100% oxygen and a PEEP of 6 cm H2O, and acute lung injury was induced by repeated lung lavage to obtain a PaO2 value < 13 kPa. Animals were then allocated randomly (n = 12 in each group) to receive exogenous surfactant therapy, ventilation with high PEEP (18 cm H2O), partial liquid ventilation or ventilation with low PEEP (8 cm H2O) (ventilated controls). Blood-gas values were measured hourly. At the end of the 4-h study, in six animals per group, pressure-volume curves were constructed and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, whereas in the remaining animals lung injury was assessed. In the ventilated control group, arterial oxygenation did not improve and protein concentration of BAL and conversion of active to non-active surfactant components increased significantly. In the three treatment groups, PaO2 increased rapidly to > 50 kPa and remained stable over the next 4 h. The protein concentration of BAL fluid increased significantly only in the partial liquid ventilation group. Conversion of active to non-active surfactant components increased significantly in the partial liquid ventilation group and in the group ventilated with high PEEP. In the surfactant group and partial liquid ventilation groups, less lung injury was found compared with the ventilated control group and the group ventilated with high PEEP. We conclude that although all three strategies improved PaO2 to > 50 kPa, the impact on protein transfer into the alveoli, surfactant system and lung injury differed markedly. (+info
Antibody responses in the lower respiratory tract and male urogenital tract in humans after nasal and oral vaccination with cholera toxin B subunit.
Nasal vaccine delivery is superior to oral delivery in inducing specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses in the upper respiratory tract. Although an antibody response in the nasal passages is important in protecting against primary colonization with lung pathogens, antibodies in the lungs are usually required as well. We immunized 15 male volunteers twice nasally or orally with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and determined the specific antibody levels in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and urine before and 2 weeks after immunization. Nasal immunization induced fivefold increases in the levels of specific IgA antibodies in BAL fluid of most volunteers, whereas there were no significant specific IgA responses after oral immunization. The specific IgG antibody level increased eightfold in BAL fluid in the nasally vaccinated subjects, and the major part of IgG had most probably been transferred from serum. Since the specific IgG response in serum was lower in the individuals vaccinated orally, the IgG response in BAL fluid in this group was also lower and not significant. In conclusion, nasal immunization is also preferable to the oral route when vaccinating against lower respiratory tract infections, and a systemic immune response is considerably more important in the lower than in the upper respiratory tract. Moreover, both nasal and oral immunizations were able to stimulate 6- to 10-fold specific IgA and IgG responses in urine in about half of the individuals, which indicates that distant mucosal vaccination might be used to prevent adhesion of pathogens to the urogenital tract. (+info