Direct medical costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
In this study we aimed to estimate direct medical costs of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) by disease type; chronic bronchitis and emphysema. This study estimates direct costs in 1996 dollars using a prevalence approach and both aggregate and microcosting. A societal perspective is taken using prevalence, and multiple national, state and local data sources are used to estimate health-care utilization and costs. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema together account for $14.5 billion in annual direct costs. Inpatient costs are greater than outpatient and emergency costs ($8.3 vs. $7.8 billion) and hospital and medication costs account for most resources spent. The high prevalence of chronic bronchitis accounts for its larger total costs ($11.7 billion) compared with emphysema ($2.8 billion). Emphysema, which is more severe, has higher costs per prevalent case ($1341 vs. $816). Hospital stays account for the highest costs, $6.0 billion for chronic bronchitis and $1.9 billion for emphysema. The hospitalization rate, length of stay and average cost per prevalent case are higher for emphysema than for chronic bronchitis. Medication costs are the second highest cost category ($4.4 billion for chronic bronchitis, $0.693 billion for emphysema). The high hospitalization and low home care costs (0.2% of total) suggest underuse of home care and room to shift from acute to preventive care. More attention to healthcare management of chronic bronchitis and emphysema is suggested, and improving inhaler and anti-smoking compliance might be important targets. (+info)
Heat shock proteins mRNA expressions by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in asthma and chronic bronchitis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the manifestations that heat shock proteins(HSPs) possess in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic bronchitis. METHODS: Using reverse transcription-DNA polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we investigated the expression levels of HSP70, HSP90 alpha and HSP90 beta genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) at natural state and after heat shock in 14 healthy volunteers, 21 patients with asthma and 18 patients with chronic bronchitis. RESULTS: No HSP70 gene but HSP90 alpha and HSP90 beta expressions were found in non-heat-shocked PBMC of normal control; HSP90 alpha and HSP90 beta genes may be expressed in PBMC of patients no matter whether they were in acute episode or not. Expression of HSP70 was found in PBMC of patients in acute episodes and of three symptoms-free patients with Aas 3, step 2. No expression of HSP70 gene was found in PBMC of patients in convalescent period but in PBMC of patients in acute episode. HSP90 alpha and HSP90 beta genes were expressed in PBMC of the two patients groups; After heat shock, expressions of the three genes increased in amount significantly in PBMC of all normal controls and patients. CONCLUSION: Expression of HSP70 gene in PBMC of asthmatic patients and chronic bronchitis was different, indicating that HSPs, especially HSP70 might be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. (+info)
Sleep as a teaching tool for integrating respiratory physiology and motor control.
Sleep exerts major effects on most fundamental homeostatic mechanisms. Current data suggest, however, that students of physiology and medicine typically receive little or no formal teaching in sleep. Because sleep takes up a significant component of our life span, it is proposed that current teaching in systems and integrative physiology is not representative if it is confined to functions describing wakefulness only. We propose that sleep can be readily integrated into various components of physiology and medical curricula simply by emphasizing how commonly taught physiological processes are importantly affected by sleep mechanisms. In our experience, this approach can be used to reinforce basic physiological principles while simultaneously introducing sleep physiology into the students' training. We find that students have a general and inherent interest in sleep and related clinical disorders, and this proves useful as an effective means to teach the material. In this paper, examples of how sleep influences motor control and the respiratory system will illustrate these points. These considerations also highlight some important gaps in traditional teaching of respiratory physiology. (+info)
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and antibiotics: what studies are still needed?
The use of antibiotics in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs) remains the subject of controversy despite considerable medical and socioeconomic implications. First, the contribution of bacterial infection to AECBs is difficult to assess in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are chronically colonized with respiratory pathogens. In addition, several studies suggest a major role of viral infections in AECBs. Secondly, it is unlikely that all COPD patients will benefit from antibiotics during AECBs. In particular, the benefit in mild COPD remains uncertain. Unfortunately, the number of studies complying with evidence-based medicine requirements is too small for definite recommendations in AECBs to be drawn up. Considering the impact of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, as well as the community, and the impact of antibiotic therapy on the development of bacterial resistance, there is an urgent need for the design of appropriate multicentric studies to define the usefulness of this type of treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. (+info)
Effect of sputum processing with dithiothreitol on the detection of inflammatory mediators in chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis.
BACKGROUND: Sputum analysis is used increasingly to assess airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including those with chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. However, it is not known whether dithiothreitol (DTT), a reducing mucolytic agent regularly used to homogenise sputum, affects the detection of inflammatory mediators in the sputum soluble phase from such patients. METHODS: Thirty two spontaneous sputum samples were collected from 13 patients with chronic bronchitis and 17 with bronchiectasis. An aliquot from each sample was treated with either freshly prepared 0.1% DTT plus normal saline (NaCl) or NaCl alone, then ultracentrifuged to obtain the sputum sol phase. Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were measured by ELISA, and neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) by chromogenic substrate assay. The effect of DTT on the detection of assay standards was also determined. RESULTS: Median levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, SLPI, and NE were similar in the DTT and NaCl treated samples. There was a significant reduction in median (IQR) levels of detectable TNFalpha (0.07 (0.00-0.47) pM v 0.90 (0.06-6.98) pM, p<0.001), LTB(4) (1.67 (1.31-2.64) nM v 2.29 (0.95-4.22) nM, p<0.05) and MPO (0.00 (0.00-0.00) mg/l v 4.48 (0.00-33.66) mg/l, p<0.001) and a small increase in the median alpha(1)-AT concentration (0.05 (0.03-0.08) nM v 0.03 (0.02-0.08) nM, p<0.01) in the DTT treated samples. DTT had no effect on the assay standards for IL-1beta, IL-8 or TNFalpha, but at higher concentrations it did affect IL-6, SLPI, NE, and LTB(4) standards (43%, 70%, 76% and 643% of control value for top standard, respectively) and at all concentrations DTT completely abolished MPO activity. CONCLUSIONS: Sputum processing with DTT significantly reduces the detectable concentration of TNFalpha, LTB(4) and MPO, and produces a small but significant increase in median alpha(1)-AT levels. To avoid this problem we recommend that an untreated aliquot of sputum be retained for cytokine analysis, unless the assay has been specifically validated. (+info)
Chlamydia pneumoniae and chronic bronchitis: association with severity and bacterial clearance following treatment.
BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to evaluate Chlamydia pneumoniae chronic infection, other respiratory infections, and functional impairment in patients with chronic bronchitis (stage 1) and to examine chronic C pneumoniae infection, rate of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and rate of C pneumoniae eradication following antibiotic treatment (stage 2). METHODS: In the stage 1 study respiratory specimens from 42 patients with steady state chronic bronchitis were analysed for Gram staining, sputum culture, and C pneumoniae DNA detection by nested touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the results of stage 1, a second population of 141 consecutive patients with steady state mild to moderate chronic bronchitis (FEV(1) >or=50% predicted) was studied. On admission, at regular intervals, and at exacerbation all patients underwent serological testing for C pneumoniae (microimmunofluorescence) and a nested touchdown PCR to detect C pneumoniae DNA was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Patients were assessed over a 12 month period. Information regarding the previous 12 months was taken from medical records. RESULTS: Chronic colonisation of the sputum with C pneumoniae was significantly associated with lower FEV(1) and greater airway bacterial colonisation. On admission to the stage 2 study, 80 patients were PCR negative and 61 were PCR positive. Over the 2 years a mean (SD) of 1.43 (1.32) acute exacerbations occurred in PCR negative patients and 2.03 (1.21) in PCR positive patients (p<0.01). During the 12 month follow up period 34 PCR positive patients had acute exacerbations and were treated with azithromycin for 6 weeks. Serological evidence of acute C pneumoniae reinfection/reactivation was found in two of the 34 patients. The rate of C pneumoniae DNA clearance from blood following treatment was 29% at follow up. CONCLUSION: Chronic colonisation with C pneumoniae is associated with a higher rate of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Long term treatment is required to obtain clearance of the organism from the blood. (+info)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 4: imaging the lungs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
The role of chest radiography and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis is reviewed. (+info)
Chronic bronchitis among French adults: high prevalence and underdiagnosis.
The aims of this survey were to determine the prevalence of symptoms indicative of chronic bronchitis (CB) in the French adult population, to identify the role of risk factors for CB, and to assess rates of CB diagnosis and pulmonary function testing (PFT) in the presence of CB. A representative sample of 14,076 individuals aged > or = 25 yrs completed a self-administered questionnaire on symptoms, comorbidities, smoking history, sociodemographical data, and diagnosis and care by physicians. The prevalence of CB was 4.1% and the prevalence of chronic cough and/or expectoration was 11.7%. In individuals with comorbidity, these figures were 10.4% and 24.4%, respectively. Smoking was associated with an increased frequency of CB. In subjects with CB, 44.6% had PFT (spirometry or peak expiratory flow measurement), 24% were diagnosed as having CB, and 7.2% received care. Rates of diagnosis, PFT, and follow-up were lower in young individuals and in those without comorbidity. PFT and follow-up were less common in current smokers. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis in French adults is high and similar in magnitude to that of other industrialised countries. Comorbidities and tobacco smoking increase the frequency of chronic bronchitis symptoms. Chronic bronchitis is too infrequently diagnosed, investigated and cared for. (+info)