The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection.
Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa. (+info)
Risk factors for lower airway bacterial colonization in chronic bronchitis.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for lower airway bacterial colonization (LABC) in stable chronic bronchitis (CB). Forty-one outpatients with CB were enrolled in the study (age 63.8+/-9.1 yrs (mean+/-SD); forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) 62.8+/-11.2; current/former smokers 24/17). All patients had normal chest radiographs and an indication for performing fibreoptic bronchoscopy (pulmonary nodule, remote haemoptysis). The protected specimen brush (PSB) was used for bacterial sampling, and concentrations > or = 1,000 colony-forming units (cfu) x mL(-1) were considered positive for LABC. The repeatability of the procedure in CB was assessed in a random subsample of 18 subjects. A 72.2% quantitative agreement was found in the repeatability assessment of the PSB technique. Positive PSB cultures, obtained in 9 out of 41 (22%) patients, mainly yielded Haemophilus influenzae. The logistic regression model, used to determine which variables were related to colonization, showed that LABC was associated with current smoking (odds ratio (OR) 9.83, confidence interval (CI) 1.16-83.20) and low FVC (OR 0.73, CI 0.65-0.81). Age and FEV1 were not related to LABC. It was concluded that the prevalence of LABC in stable CB is high (22%), and current smoking is an important risk factor. (+info)
Influence of family factors on the incidence of lower respiratory illness during the first year of life.
In a study of a cohort of over 2000 children born between 1963 and 1965, the incidence of bronchitis and pneumonia during their first year of life was found to be associated with several family factors. The most important determinant of respiratory illness in these infants was an attack of bronchitis or pneumonia in a sibling. The age of these siblings, and their number, also contributed to this incidence. Parental respiratory symptoms, including persistent cough and phlegm, and asthma or wheezing, as well as parental smoking habits, had lesser but nevertheless important effects. Parental smoking, however, stands out from all other factors as the one most amenable to change in seeking to prevent bronchitis and pneumonia in infants. (+info)
Influence of personal and family factors on ventilatory function of children.
We wanted to assess the relative influence of various personal and family factors upon the development of ventilatory function in young children. The relationship of several such factors to peak expiratory flow rates measured at the age of five years was studied in 454 children. These children were members of a birth cohort born between 1963 and 1965 in Harrow, north-west London, who were examined regularly from birth through the first five years of life. Beside its expected association with height, peak expiratory flow rate at the age of five years was also related to a lesser extent with peak expiratory flow rate in parents. Children with a history of lower respiratory illness had mean peak flow rates which were lower than those of children who escaped these illnesses. The earlier the onset of the illness and the more frequent its recurrence, the more marked its effect on ventilatory function. The group of children with a history of asthma and bronchitis had the lowest mean peak expiratory flow rate, but a history of bronchitis or pneumonia alone (that is, without asthma) was also associated with reduced ventilatory function. Respiratory illness beginning in the first year of life was the most potentially modifiable determinant of peak expiratory flow rate in children in this study. (+info)
Aspects of serum and sputum antibody in chronic airways obstruction.
Immunoglobulin levels and precipitating antibody against a range of microbial antigens were measured in simultaneously collected serum and sputum samples from patients with chronic bronchitis (11), cystic fibrosis (9), bronchiectasis (9), and asthma (4). Sputum was prepared by dialysis and high-speed centrifugation methods. Results showed that it was possible to detect precipitating antibody in the sputum, and the rate was increased when both methods were used. A discrepancy was noted between the detection rate in the sputum and serum. This, combined with the lack of correlation between sputum and serum immunoglobulins, lack of relationship between bronchial inflammation and sputum immunoglobulins, and the lack of IgM in the sputum suggested that the antibody and immunoglobulin were locally produced. Sputum IgA (7S) in patients with chronic bronchitis was significantly lower (P less than 0-05) than that found in patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Significant differences (P less than 0-05) were also noted in serum IgG levels between patients with chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis while serum IgM levels in patients with chronic bronchitis were significantly lower (P less than 0-05) when compared to serum levels in patients with cystic fibrosis. The presence of precipitating antibody in the sputum raises the possibility that type III reactions may be important in the pathogenesis of these conditions. (+info)
The diagnostic and treatment approach to two common conditions by the physician members of a community health maintenance organization.
We retrospectively collected data from one community managed care organization on all ambulatory care patients initially diagnosed with pneumonia or acute bronchitis from October, 1, 1992, to March 31, 1993, and from November 1, 1993, to January 31, 1994. We considered treatment to be successful when patients did not return for any related service within 15 days of initial diagnosis. We identified 2,490 episodes of illness, 85.7% which were acute bronchitis and 14.3% which were pneumonia. Overwhelmingly, physicians approached these conditions empirically (no diagnostic test); just 8.6% of patients had a diagnostic test during the 15-day episode of illness. Two-hundred twenty-nine of the episodes (9.2%) were apparently related to initial diagnoses, as they occurred during the 15-day period. More branded prescriptions (vs. generic) were dispensed during these related episodes. One patient was hospitalized and 19 patients used the emergency room either for first or subsequent visits. Empiric treatment is associated with effective diagnosis and therapy in ambulatory care patients with acute bronchitis and pneumonia. It remains unclear, however, if this strategy is the most cost-effective or if it leads to the most effective utilization of services. (+info)
Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection.
An interactive pharmacoeconomic model was designed to evaluate the effects of clinical response and adverse drug events on the comparative cost and cost-effectiveness of a relatively new antibiotic, clarithromycin, compared with those of six other antibiotics used to treat community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection. The cost and cost-effectiveness analyses were based don 12 randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials conducted between 1987 and 1992 in regionally distributed outpatient clinics in the United States. The trials enrolled a total of 2377 patients. Of the 2377, 1102 patients were treated for acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, 591 for pneumonia, and 201 for either of the two conditions. Safety data for one of the antibiotics was obtained from a trial of patients with sinusitis (N = 483). The antibiotics included in the analysis were amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin, cefaclor, cefixime, cefuroxime, clarithromycin, and erythromycin. The main outcome measures were the costs of resources to achieve a clinical response, costs related to managing adverse drug events, and costs of antibiotic treatment from the perspective of managed care. The mean total cost per episode ranged from approximately $137 to $267. The drug acquisition cost typically contributed a small amount to the overall cost. For the cost-effectiveness analysis, in which complication-free cure was used as a proxy for patient satisfaction, the range of mean cost per complication-free cure varied from approximately $307 for clarithromycin to $612 for cefaclor. When ranked from most to least cost-effective, the order was as follows: clarithromycin, cefixime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, erythromycin, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and cefaclor. The costs associated with clinical management (including treatment failure) and managing adverse drug events significantly contribute to the total cost and cost-effectiveness of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. Cost-effectiveness analyses are valuable in analyzing the various costs associated with the treatment of lower respiratory tract infection (acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or pneumonia) and may be useful tools for physicians managing patients, members of pharmacy and therapeutics committees developing formularies, and medical staff implementing practice guidelines. (+info)
Suppression of airway inflammation by theophylline in adult bronchial asthma.
BACKGROUND: Chronic continuous airway inflammation caused by eosinophils has been noted to play critical roles in the pathophysiology of bronchial asthma, in addition to reversible obstruction and hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract. Therefore, suppression of chronic airway inflammation has become more important in asthma treatment. Although theophylline has been a conventionally used bronchodilator, it has been recently reported to have concurrent anti-inflammatory effects. OBJECTIVE: Accordingly, we studied the effects of a slow-release theophylline preparation, Theolong, on airway inflammation. METHODS: Administration of Theolong 400 mg/day to 24 patients with mild or moderate asthma and measuring eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a marker of airway inflammation, and eosinophils in sputum and peripheral blood at 4 and 8 weeks. RESULTS: As a result, sputum ECP, serum ECP and sputum eosinophil count (%) were significantly lowered after 4 and 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: Thus, in the theophylline-administered group, slow-release theophylline, Theolong, was effective in treating asthma, with anti-inflammatory effects on inflammatory cells besides its bronchodilator action. (+info)