(1/382) Increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease, obstructive bronchiolitis, and alopecia with busulfan versus total body irradiation: long-term results of a randomized trial in allogeneic marrow recipients with leukemia. Nordic Bone Marrow Transplantation Group.

Leukemic patients receiving marrow from HLA-identical sibling donors were randomized to treatment with either busulfan 16 mg/kg (n = 88) or total body irradiation ([TBI] n = 79) in addition to cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg. The patients were observed for a period of 5 to 9 years. Busulfan-treated patients had an increased risk of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver (12% v 1%, P =.01) and hemorrhagic cystitis (32% v 10%, P =.003). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was similar in the two groups, but the 7-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 59% in the busulfan-treated group versus 47% in the TBI group (P =.05). Death from GVHD was more common in the busulfan group (22% v 3%, P <.001). Obstructive bronchiolitis occurred in 26% of the busulfan patients but in only 5% of the TBI patients (P <.01). Complete alopecia developed in 8 busulfan patients and partial alopecia in 17, versus five with partial alopecia in the TBI group (P <.001). Cataracts occurred in 5 busulfan-treated patients and 16 TBI patients (P =.02). The incidence of relapse after 7 years was 29% in both groups. Seven-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) in patients with early disease was 21% in the busulfan group and 12% in the TBI group. In patients with more advanced disease, the corresponding figures were 64% and 22%, respectively (P =.004). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) in patients with early disease was 68% in busulfan-treated patients and 66% in TBI patients. However, 7-year LFS in patients with more advanced disease was 17% in the busulfan group versus 49% in the TBI group (P <.01). In patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in first chronic phase, 7-year LFS was 72% and 83% in the two groups, respectively.  (+info)

(2/382) Bilateral pneumothoraces with multiple bullae in a patient with asymptomatic bronchiolitis obliterans 10 years after bone marrow transplantation.

A 16-year-old boy developed bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) 10 years after BMT for myelodysplastic syndrome. Although the patient complained of almost no dyspnea on exertion, he had mild hypercapnea with a markedly reduced forced expiratory volume of 0.32 l. Chest X-rays showed occasional bilateral minimal pneumothoraces, which is in accordance with the existence of multiple small bullae found on the pleural surface at video-assisted thoracic surgery. Histologic examination of the biopsied lung revealed BO. This case indicates that BO in adolescence following BMT and possible chronic GVHD may be masked because of lung immaturity at BMT, and BO after BMT may be associated with multiple pleural bullae.  (+info)

(3/382) Constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans and paraneoplastic pemphigus.

Constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans is rare, and the pathogenesis of the disease often remains unknown. This study reports on the case of a 38 yr-old female with constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans and paraneoplastic pemphigus associated with malignant lymphoma. The patient developed progressive obstructive lung disease. The chest radiograph showed almost normal lungs. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is a newly described syndrome in which patients have autoantibodies binding to some epithelia, including in the respiratory tract. The disease develops in association with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas or other malignant neoplasms. The case presented here suggests that constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans associated with paraneoplastic pemphigus may be one of the facets of autoimmune responses in this context.  (+info)

(4/382) Peripheral blood allogeneic microchimerism in lung and cardiac allograft recipients.

We have been investigating two parameters, donor antigen-specific hyporeactivity and peripheral blood allogeneic microchimerism, to determine whether these parameters will predict a chronic rejection-free state and which recipients may be candidates for steroid withdrawal. We have identified donor antigen-specific hyporeactivity for 33% (16/48) of lung and 23% (11/47) of heart recipients. For both organ groups, the hyporeactive subgroup experienced a lower incidence of chronic rejection. The probability of donor antigen-specific hyporeactivity predicting a chronic rejection-free state is 100% for lung and 91% for heart recipients. We have identified peripheral blood allogeneic microchimerism for 77% (20/26) of lung and 36% (9/25) of heart recipients tested at 12-18 months posttransplant. Donor antigen-specific hyporeactivity correlates with a critical level of donor cells in lung recipients; the probability of high peripheral blood allogeneic microchimerism levels predicting a chronic rejection-free state in lung recipients is 100%. The results in heart recipients are not as clear with a short-, but not long-term, trend of higher chimerism levels correlating with the development of donor antigen-specific hyporeactivity. These results illustrate the usefulness of immmune parameters to predict long-term graft outcome in an organ-specific manner.  (+info)

(5/382) Persistent high BAL fluid granulocyte activation marker levels as early indicators of bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplant.

The major cause of mortality in the long-term in lung transplant recipients is chronic rejection. This is a fibroproliferative process in the small airways leading to obliterative bronchiolitis and progressive loss of lung function, both constituting the clinical entity bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Granulocyte activation has been implicated as one factor behind BOS. Granulocyte markers in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were prospectively and longitudinally studied in order to identify possible association with BOS. BAL fluid from 266 bronchoscopy procedures performed in twelve single lung, eight bilateral lung and five heart/lung transplant recipients were analysed. The majority (19 of 25) were studied for a period of 2 yrs after surgery. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were used as indirect markers of activation and attraction of granulocytes. Five patients developed BOS. Ninety-eight episodes of acute rejection, nine of bacterial infection, 19 of cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, nine of Pneumocystis carinii infection, two of aspergillus infection and two of respiratory syncytial virus infection were diagnosed. BOS patients had significantly higher mean levels of MPO, ECP and IL-8 compared to patients without BOS, irrespective of acute rejection status. Over time, the five patients with BOS had significantly elevated BAL fluid levels of MPO and ECP as well as neutrophil percentages, and in four patients this increase preceded the clinical diagnosis of BOS by several months. Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil percentage as well as levels of the granulocyte activation markers myeloperoxidase and eosinophil cationic protein appear to be early signs of development of BOS in lung transplant recipients.  (+info)

(6/382) Airway neutrophilia in stable and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome patients following lung transplantation.

BACKGROUND: The bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains the major constraint on the long term success of lung transplantation. Neutrophils have been associated with fibrosing lung conditions and have been noted to be increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with BOS. METHODS: This study was undertaken to examine neutrophil accumulation in the BAL fluid, airway wall and lung parenchyma, as well as levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the BAL fluid, in normal controls and lung transplant recipients with and without BOS. Bronchoscopic examination included endobronchial biopsy (EBB), BAL fluid, and transbronchial biopsy (TBB) sampling. Tissue neutrophils were identified by neutrophil elastase staining on 3 microm paraffin biopsy sections and quantified by computerised image analyser. IL-8 levels were measured in unconcentrated BAL fluid by ELISA. RESULTS: Compared with controls, airway wall neutrophilia was increased in both stable lung transplant recipients and those with BOS (p<0.05). BAL neutrophils and IL-8 levels were also increased in both groups of transplant recipients compared with controls (p<0.01), the levels being significantly higher in the BOS group (p<0.01). Neutrophil numbers in the lung parenchyma were not significantly different between the two groups of lung transplant recipients. CONCLUSION: Increased levels of neutrophils are present in the airway wall and BAL fluid of lung transplant recipients with and without BOS. BAL fluid levels of IL-8 are also increased, raising the possibility that neutrophils and/or IL-8 may play a part in the pathogenesis of BOS following lung transplantation.  (+info)

(7/382) Clinical and radiological characteristics of lung disease in inflammatory bowel disease.

The pulmonary associations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are poorly characterized. The clinical, physiological and high-resolution computed tomographic thorax characteristics of the lung disease in patients with IBD presenting with respiratory symptoms are described. Detailed clinical information was obtained and standard pulmonary physiological tests and thorax high-resolution computed tomography performed on 14 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and three with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 male, aged 38-83 yrs. Respiratory symptoms had been present for 2-50 yrs and extraintestinal manifestations were present in three (17.6%). Normal pulmonary physiology (six patients) was associated with the high resolution computed tomographic changes of bronchiectasis, mosaic perfusion and air trapping suggestive of obliterative bronchiolitis and a pattern of centrilobular nodules and branching linear opacities ("tree in bud" appearance) suggestive of either cellular bronchiolitis or bronchiolectasis with mucoid secretions. Bronchiectasis was found in 13 patients (11 UC, 2 CD), 11 had air trapping and five had a "tree in bud" appearance on computed tomography. One patient had a predominantly peripheral reticular pattern at the lung bases similar to that found in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and one patient had a mixed reticular and ground-glass pattern in the midzones with a patchy distribution in the central and peripheral portions of the lungs with air trapping. Eleven patients (three with alveolitis) exhibited a clinical and/or physiological response to steroids. Pulmonary abnormalities in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease can present years after the onset of the bowel disease and can affect any part of the lungs. Early recognition is important as they can be strikingly steroid-responsive.  (+info)

(8/382) B7-1, B7-2 and class II MHC molecules in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia.

Interstitial lung diseases are thought to be associated with the infiltration of activated T-lymphocytes. To induce an effective immune response, antigen-presenting cells have to not only present antigenic peptide with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to T-lymphocytes but also express B7 molecules. Therefore, the expression of B7-1, B7-2 and class II MHC molecules was investigated in lung tissues from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP), and in normal lung parenchyma as a control, using immunohistochemical localization. B7-1 and B7-2 were aberrantly expressed in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells, and class II MHC molecules were also aberrantly expressed in bronchiolar epithelial cells in IPF. B7-1 was aberrantly expressed in bronchiolar epithelial cells in BOOP. There was no significant difference in the expression of these proteins in alveolar macrophages between IPF and control subjects. However, B7-2 and class II MHC molecule expression in alveolar macrophages was decreased in BOOP compared with that in control subjects. Expression of CD28 and CTLA4, receptors for B7 molecules, was detected in infiltrating lymphocytes in lung tissues in IPF and BOOP. It was concluded that bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells may actively participate in the pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis through the aberrant expression of B7 and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. The dysregulation of these molecules in epithelial cells may lead to the activation of autoreactive T-lymphocytes, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosing lung diseases.  (+info)