Interaction of lysozyme with dyes. II. Binding of bromophenol blue.
(25/29)The binding of lysozyme with bromophenol blue (BPB) at various dye concentrations and pH was carried out at 25 degrees C by equilibrium dialysis, ultraviolet (UV) difference and circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. Binding isotherms at pH 5.0 show non-cooperative binding at low dye concentrations, which change over to cooperative binding at higher concentrations indicating biphasic nature. However, binding isotherms at pH 7.0 and 9.0 show cooperative binding only, at all concentrations of the dye. The number of available binding sites decreases with the increase of pH. Gibbs free energy change, calculated on the basis of Wyman's binding potential concept, decreases with the increase of pH. Binding isotherms at pH 5.0 obtained at a lower temperature of 8 degrees C, also indicate the biphasic nature similar to those observed at 25 degrees C, but with a slight decreased strength of binding. The UV difference spectra of the complex do not show any distinct peaks in the 285 to 297 nm region eliminating any possible interaction of BPB with tryptophan and tyrosine residues of the lysozyme molecule. The CD spectra of lysozyme-BPB complex show a decrease in ellipticities with reference to native lysozyme in the near UV and far UV regions. This indicates that the lysozyme-BPB complex has a lower helical content probably due to the conformational changes induced into the native enzyme. The appearance of new positive peaks at 315 nm in the near UV region and at 592 nm in the visible region of the CD spectra may be due to the induced asymmetry into the BPB molecule as a result of its binding to a cationic residue (probably a lysine residue) of lysozyme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) (+info)
An enzymic creatinine assay and a direct ammonia assay in coated thin films.
(26/29)We developed a thin-film enzymic assay for creatinine that makes use of creatinine iminohydrolase (EC 188.8.131.52) to convert creatinine to N-methylhydantoin and ammonia. The ammonia diffuses through a semipermeable layer and is quantitated by reaction with bromphenol blue. A paired analysis of the sample on a separate coating without the enzymic reaction measures endogenous ammonia and, for samples with normal concentrations of ammonia, allows accurate determination of serum creatinine to 150 mg/L without dilution. Results of this assay (y) compare well with those by a liquid-chromatographic comparison assay (x) by linear regression (slope = 0.935, intercept = 1.13 mg/L, r2 = 0.995). It is insensitive to many substances, such as ketones and keto acids, that interfere with conventional assays. Results of the ammonia assay (y) correlate well with those by a semi-automated enzymic assay (x) based on glutamate dehydrogenase (slope = 1.068, intercept = 17.3 mumol/L, r2 = 0.985). (+info)
Further studies on plasma proteins, lipids, and dye- and drug-binding in a child with analbuminemia.
(27/29)A previously reported patient with analbuminemia was re-investigated after 4 1/2 years, at age 6. The serum albumin concentration was 150 mg/L by radioimmunoassay. Most of the observed increase in total plasma protein over the 4 1/2 years was attributable to gamma-globulin. Concentrations of total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were increased; the esterified:free ratio and the lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity were both normal. Albumin is apparently not essential for binding of lysolecithin generated by the acyltransferase-catalyzed reaction. The binding of bromphenol blue suggested that analbuminemic serum has about 25% of normal binding capacity for bilirubin (more than expected in a patient with analbuminemia), which may explain why newborns with this disorder do not develop kernicterus. Binding by the patient's plasma of diazepam (1020 mg/L) and warfarin (1040 mg/L), which bind primarily to albumin, as well as of propranolol (1.05 g/L), which binds primarily to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, was also studied. The proportions of free diazepam (14.4%) and warfarin (4.8%) were about 10-fold normal. In contrast, the proportion of propranolol in the free form was decreased (4.5%). Evidently, other plasma proteins are partly compensating for the deficiency of albumin. (+info)
Renal handling of phenol red. II. The mechanism of substituted phenolsulphophthalein (PSP) dye transport in rabbit kidney tubules in vitro.
(28/29)1. The uptake of various substituted phenolsulphophthalein dyes by cortical slices of rabbit kidney has been studied in detail in order to obtain more information on the secretory system for organic anions. 2. The rate of initial uptake of dyes and the accumulation after incubation for 2 hr under aerobic conditions increased in the order: phenol red (PR) greater than bromophenol blue (BPB) greater than bromocresol green (BCG) greater than bromothymol blue (BTB), while the reverse order of uptake was observed under anaerobic conditions. There was no difference between the uptake of BTB under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. 3. The accumulation of dyes under anaerobic conditions could be accounted for by binding to tissue constituents. In comparison with PR (Sheikh, 1972), the substituted dyes were found to interact extensively with the 700 G (cell membranes) and cytosol fractions of renal homogenates. 4. Low concentrations of the substituted dyes efficiently inhibited the accumulation of rho-aminohippurate (PAH). The concentration of dye resulting in 50% inhibition of PAH accumulation (KI) agreed well with concentrations estimated to sustain 50% of maximal dye transport (KM). On this basis the affinity of the dyes for the transport system increases in the order: PR less than BPB less than BCG less than BTB. 5. Probenecid, 2,4-dinitrophenol, PAH, octanoate and succinate affected to a smaller extent the uptake and binding of BPB and BCG by renal tissue than that previously shown for PR (Sheikh, 1972). No inhibitory effect of these substances on the accumulation of BTB by kidney tissue was observed. 6. The binding of PSP dyes by phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) and a representative binding protein, human serum albumin, exhibited close similarity to that of binding by renal tissue. Partition experiments involving octanol-water phases indicated that the hydrophobicity of the dyes increased in the order: PR less than BPB less than BCG less than BTB. 7. The results indicate that BTB, despite its inhibitory potency, is not transported by the organic anion system. BPB and BCG are transported to a lesser extent, and interact more strongly with the transport system than does PR. It is suggested that the substituted dyes by virtue of hydrophobic interaction with the transport system reduce the movement of the mobile part of the transport system. (+info)
Ligand-apomyoglobin interactions. Configurational adaptability of the haem-binding site.
(29/29)1. The interaction of the haem-binding region of apomyoglobin with different ligands was examined by ultrafiltration, equilibrium dialysis and spectrophotometry, to study unspecific features of protein-ligand interactions such as they occur in, for example, serum albumin binding. 2. Apomyoglobin, in contrast with metmyoglobin, binds at pH 7, with a high affinity, one molecule of Bromophenol Blue, bilirubin and protoporphyrin IX, two molecules of n-dodecanoate and n-decyl sulphate and four molecules of n-dodecyl sulphate and n-tetradecyl sulphate. 3. The number of high-affinity sites and/or association constants for the alkyl sulphates are enhanced by an increase of hydrocarbon length, indicating hydrophobic interactions with the protein. 4. Measurements of the temperature-dependence of the association constants of the high-affinity sites imply that the binding processes are largely entropy-driven. 5. Binding studies in the presence of two ligands show that bilirubin plus Bromophenol Blue and dodecanoate plus Bromophenol Blue can be simultaneously bound by apomyoglobin, but with decreased affinities. By contrast, the apomyoglobin-protoporphyrin IX complex does not react with Bromophenol Blue. 6. Optical-rotatory-dispersion measurements show that the laevorotation of apomyoglobin is increased towards that of metmyglobin in the presence of haemin and protoporphyrin IX. Small changes in the optical-rotatory-dispersion spectrum of apomyoglobin are observed in the presence of the other ligands. 7. It is concluded that the binding sites on apomyoglobin probably do not pre-exist but appear to be moulded from predominantly non-polar amino acid residues by reaction with hydrophobic ligands. 8. Comparison with data in the literature indicates that apomyoglobin on a weight basis has a larger hydrophobic area avaialble for binding of ligands than has human serum albumin. On the other hand, the association constants of serum for the ligands used in this study are generally somewhat larger than those of apomyoglobin. (+info)