Inhibition of glutathione synthesis with propargylglycine enhances N-acetylmethionine protection and methylation in bromobenzene-treated Syrian hamsters. (1/69)

The finding that liver necrosis caused by the environmental glutathione (GSH)-depleting chemical, bromobenzene (BB) is associated with marked impairment in O- and S-methylation of BB metabolites in Syrian hamsters raises questions concerning the role of methyl deficiency in BB toxicity. N-Acetylmethionine (NAM) has proven to be an effective antidote against BB toxicity when given after liver GSH has been depleted extensively. The mechanism of protection by NAM may occur via a replacement of methyl donor and/or via an increase of GSH synthesis. If replacement of the methyl donor is an important process, then blocking the resynthesis of GSH in the methyl-repleted hamsters should not decrease NAM protection. This hypothesis was examined in this study. Propargylglycine (PPG), an irreversible inhibitor of cystathionase, was used to inhibit the utilization of NAM for GSH resynthesis. Two groups of hamsters were pretreated with an intraperitoneal (ip) dose of PPG (30 mg/kg) or saline 24 h before BB administration (800 mg/kg, ip). At 5 h after BB treatment, an ip dose of NAM (1200 mg/kg) was given. Light microscopic examinations of liver sections obtained 24 h after BB treatment indicated that NAM provided better protection (P < 0.05) in the PPG + BB + NAM group than in the BB + NAM group. Liver GSH content, however, was lower in the PPG + BB + NAM group than in the BB + NAM group. The Syrian hamster has a limited capability to N-deacetylated NAM. The substitution of NAM with methionine (Met; 450 mg/kg) resulted in a higher level of GSH in the BB + Met group than in the BB + NAM group (P < 0.05). The enhanced protection by PPG in the PPG + BB + NAM group was accompanied by higher (P < 0.05) urinary excretions of specificO- and S-methylated bromothiocatechols than in the BB + NAM group. The results suggest that NAM protection occurs primarily via a replacement of the methyl donor and that methyl deficiency occurring in response to GSH repletion plays a potential role in BB toxicity.  (+info)

The role of biotransformation in chemical-induced liver injury. (2/69)

The role of drug metabolism in chemical-induced liver injury is reviewed. Parameters for studying the formation of chemically reactive metabolites are discussed and the factors that alter the formation and covalent binding of reactive metabolites are selectively emphasized. Some of the experimental work that led to these concepts is discussed, especially the chemical toxicology of the hepatic injury produced by acetaminophen, bromobenzene, furosemide, isoniazid and iproniazid.  (+info)

Hepatoprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. I. Protection when given twenty-four hours after chloroform or bromobenzene. (3/69)

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has previously been reported to protect against hepatotoxicity resulting from chloroform (CHCl3) or bromobenzene (BB) when given 10 hr after the toxicant. The object of these studies was to further demonstrate the latent protective ability of DMSO by administering it at a much later time (24 hr) following toxicant exposure. In addition, a more detailed evaluation of the lesions was performed to better characterize the lesion progression and resolution. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a hepatotoxic oral dose of either CHCl3 (1.0 ml/kg) or BB (0.5 ml/kg) and then received 2 ml/kg DMSO intraperitoneally 24 hr later. With both toxicants, limited centrilobular lesions were already present by the time DMSO was administered. Without treatment, liver injury rapidly progressed so that by 48 hr it occupied 40-50% of the liver, with accompanying large increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Administration of DMSO greatly attenuated lesion development for both toxicants; the area injured was reduced by more than 4-fold, accompanied by a decrease in 48 hr ALT activity of 8-16-fold. The ability of DMSO to intervene in the development of liver injury at such a late time appears to be unique and may provide insight into therapies for acute xenobiotic-induced hepatitis.  (+info)

Nuclear localization of biliverdin reductase in the rat kidney: response to nephrotoxins that induce heme oxygenase-1. (4/69)

Biliverdin reductase catalyzes the reduction of biliverdin, the product of heme oxygenase (HO) activity, to bilirubin. The reductase is unique among all enzymes characterized to date in being dual pH/cofactor-dependent. Until now the enzyme was assumed to be a noninducible cytosolic protein. This report, for the first time, demonstrates induction and nuclear localization of reductase in rat kidney in response to HO-1 inducers: bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bromobenzene. The study also demonstrates that nuclear localization requires an intact nuclear localization signal and is responsive to cGMP. Specifically 16 h after treatment of rats (i.p.) with LPS (5 mg/kg), there was an increase in nuclear biliverdin reductase as determined by immunostaining, Western blotting, and activity analysis. Induction and nuclear localization of the reductase in kidney was also observed in bromobenzene-treated rats (2 mmol/kg, s.c., 24 h). The reductase message levels, however, were not increased in response to either treatment, suggesting post-transcriptional activation of the reductase by LPS and bromobenzene. The mechanism of nuclear transport of the reductase was examined using HeLa cells transfected with the hemagglutinin-tagged reductase construct. When cells were treated with 8-Br-cGMP the protein translocated into the nucleus. Mutation of the putative nuclear localization signal domain of the reductase blocked nuclear transport of the protein. We suggest the significance of nuclear localization of the reductase may relate to: 1) chain-breaking antioxidant activity of bilirubin; 2) inhibition of superoxide formation by bilirubin; and 3) modulation of the signal transduction pathways.  (+info)

Unique gene expression patterns in liver and kidney associated with exposure to chemical toxicants. (5/69)

DNA arrays containing 260 unique genes involved in phase I and II metabolism, heat shock, DNA repair, inflammation, transcription, and housekeeping were used to examine gene expression patterns in liver and kidney in response to five classes of chemicals (polyaromatic hydrocarbons: benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene; DNA alkylators: dimethylnitrosamine, ethylnitrosourea; peroxisome proliferators: diethylhexylphthalate, clofibrate; heavy metals: CdCl(2), HgCl(2); and oxidative stressors: CCl(4), bromobenzene). Time course experiments in mice were carried out in both tissues for each chemical and dose-response studies were used to further evaluate several of these chemicals. Each pair of chemicals yielded a similar pattern of gene expression distinct from the other four classes of chemicals. Both peroxisome proliferators up-regulated Cyp4a10, acyl-CoA thioesterase, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, whereas the DNA alkylators altered the expression of monokine induced by gamma-interferon, the metallothioneins, p21, and several acute phase proteins. For each of the five classes of chemicals tested, several genes that were induced or repressed were common in each chemical exposure, whereas other genes were unique for that specific class of compound. Both time and dose are important factors in differentiating between chemical classes. Likewise, comparison of changes in messenger RNA expression between the kidney and liver of treated animals indicates that gene arrays may be useful in determining the comparative toxicity of chemicals in various tissues but that exposure to uncharacterized chemicals will have to be monitored in several tissues.  (+info)

Alpha-glutathione S-transferase in the assessment of hepatotoxicity--its diagnostic utility in comparison with other recognized markers in the Wistar Han rat. (6/69)

The diagnostic utility of alpha-glutathione S-transferase (alphaGST) in the assessment of acute hepatotoxicity was compared with a range of markers including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Rats were given a single oral dose of either alpha-naphthylisothiocynate (AN IT), bromobenzene (BrB). or thioacetamide (TAM) at concentrations previously shown to induce marked hepatotoxicity. The progression of each hepatic lesion was monitored by the measurement of a battery of markers, including alphaGST, in plasma collected at time points ranging from 3 h to 7 days after dosing. alphaGST was seen to increase significantly at 24 h (ANIT/BrB) and 3 h (TAM) postdosing, corresponding with histopathological findings. For each compound, when the degree of insult was most severe, fold increases in alphaGST were greater than those seen with ALT and AST, yet lower than those seen with glutamate dehydrogenase (BrB and ANIT). sorbitol dehydrogenase (TAM), or total bilirubin and bile acids (ANIT). Elevations in alphaGST were also detected no earlier than any other marker. AlphaGST in the rat was shown to be a valid marker of hepatotoxicity; however, its measurement offered no additional information in detecting either the time of onset/recovery or the severity of each type of hepatic injury induced.  (+info)

Enhancing effect of zinc on hepatoprotectivity of epigallocatechin gallate in isolated rat hepatocytes. (7/69)

The influence of metal ions (Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) on the hepatoprotective activity of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) against hepatotoxin-induced cell injury was investigated. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were treated with a well-known hepatotoxin, bromobenzene (BB), in the presence of EGCG only or EGCG plus each metal ion. After 24 h, 0.02 mM EGCG did not show protective activity on the cultured hepatocytes. In contrast, the hepatocytes were protected against BB in the presence of 0.02 mM EGCG and 0.02 mM zinc. The addition of only zinc could not protect hepatocytes against BB. These results suggest that the formation of the zinc-EGCG complex is very important in the enhancement of the hepatoprotective activity of EGCG. The complexation of EGCG with zinc was confirmed by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy.  (+info)

Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution on intraocular pressure reduction by latanoprost. (8/69)

AIM: To investigate the effects of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ophthalmic solution on latanoprost induced intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction using normal volunteers. METHODS: This study was conducted as a prospective and observer masked clinical trial. 13 normal volunteers were enrolled. After measurement of basal IOP and ophthalmic examination, latanoprost ophthalmic solution was initially administered to both eyes once daily. Four weeks later, an NSAID ophthalmic solution, sodium 2-amino-3-(4-bromobenzoyl) phenylacetate sesquihydrate (refer to bromfenac sodium hydrate), was co-administered to one randomly selected eye (NSAID group) twice daily for 2 weeks. The other eye was employed as a control (non-NSAID group). After withdrawal of the NSAID ophthalmic solution, latanoprost ophthalmic solution was continuously administered for another 2 weeks and was then withdrawn. After a 4 week washout, only bromfenac sodium hydrate ophthalmic solution was administered to the eyes of the NSAID group for 2 weeks. During the study period, ophthalmic examination, including IOP measurement was performed in an observer masked fashion. RESULTS: Before initiation of bromfenac sodium hydrate, baseline IOPs of the non-NSAID group and the NSAID group were 15.73 (SD 1.97) mm Hg and 15.86 (2.06) mm Hg, respectively (p=0.88). Although latanoprost ophthalmic solution significantly reduced IOP in both groups, co-administration of bromfenac sodium hydrate significantly inhibited latanoprost induced IOP reduction compared with the non-NSAID group. The IOPs of the non-NSAID and NSAID groups were 10.18 (1.17) mm Hg and 11.63 (1.35) mm Hg with a 2 week co-administration, respectively (p <0.01). Withdrawal of bromfenac sodium hydrate ophthalmic solution diminished the difference between the two groups. Re-administration of bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution only did not affect IOP. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that NSAID ophthalmic solution may interfere with IOP reduction by latanoprost ophthalmic solution in normal volunteers and that we should take this into account when treating patients with glaucoma using latanoprost ophthalmic solution.  (+info)