Bromelain protects piglets from diarrhoea caused by oral challenge with K88 positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.
BACKGROUND: K88 positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88+ ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhoea in young piglets. K88+ ETEC pathogenesis relies on attachment to specific glycoprotein receptors located on the intestinal mucosa. Proteolytic treatment of these receptors in vitro and in vivo prevents attachment of K88+ ETEC to piglet small intestines and may be of clinical use to prevent K88+ ETEC pathogenesis. AIMS: To determine whether bromelain, a proteolytic extract obtained from pineapple stems, would protect piglets against K88+ ETEC diarrhoea and to confirm and extend earlier findings on the effects of bromelain on K88+ ETEC receptors in vivo. METHODS: Bromelain (0, 12.5, or 125 mg) was orally administered to just weaned piglets for 10 days. One day following commencement of bromelain treatment, piglets were challenged with K88+ ETEC (5 x 10(10) K88ac:0149) for seven days. Intestinal contents from unchallenged piglets were obtained via an intestinal fistula, and tested for their ability to bind K88+ ETEC before and after bromelain treatment. RESULTS: Both doses of bromelain were successful in reducing the incidence of K88+ ETEC diarrhoea and protected piglets from life threatening disease. Bromelain treated pigs also had significantly increased weight gain compared with untreated pigs. Bromelain only temporarily inhibited K88+ ETEC receptor activity, with receptor activity being regenerated 30 hours following treatment, consistent with the regeneration of new enterocytes. CONCLUSION: Results show that bromelain can temporarily inactivate ETEC receptors in vivo and protect against ETEC induced diarrhoea. Bromelain may therefore be an effective prophylaxis against ETEC infection. (+info)
Studies on the hydrazinolysis of glycoproteins. Core structures of oligosaccharides obtained from Porcine thyroglobulin and pineapple stem bromelain.
Hydrazinolysis of porcine thyroglobulin glycopeptides and of pineapple stem bromelain [EC 188.8.131.52] permitted the isolation of almost intact carbohydrate chains of these glycoproteins. On the basis of permethylation analyses of the released oligosaccharides after reduction with NaBH4, the core structures of Unit A-type and Unit B-type carbohydrate chains of porcine thyroglobulin were deduced to be Manalpha1 leads to 6[Manalpha1 leads to 3]Manbeta1 leads to 4GlcNAcbeta1 leads to 4[Ralpha1 leads to 6]GlcNAc leads to Asn (Unit A-type, R=H; Unit B-type, R=Fuc), and that of bromelain was found to be Manalpha1 leads to 6[R'1 leads to 2]Manbeta1 leads to 4GlcNAcbeta1 leads to 4[R1 leads to 3]GlcNAc leads to Asn (R'=Xylbeta and R=Fucalpha, or R'=Fucalpha and R=Xylbeta). From these results, it appears that the hydrazinolysis method is applicable to wide variety of glycoproteins which have an N-glycosylamine linkage between the carbohydrate and peptide moieties, regardless of the type of linkage to the most proximal N-acetylglucosamine residue which is bound to asparagine. (+info)
Bromelain, from pineapple stems, proteolytically blocks activation of extracellular regulated kinase-2 in T cells.
Recently, it has emerged that extracellular proteases have specific regulatory roles in modulating immune responses. Proteases may act as signaling molecules to activate the Raf-1/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-2 pathway to participate in mitogenesis, apoptosis, and cytokine production. Most reports on the role of protease-mediated cell signaling, however, focus on their stimulatory effects. In this study, we show for the first time that extracellular proteases may also block signal transduction. We show that bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple stems, blocks activation of ERK-2 in Th0 cells stimulated via the TCR with anti-CD3epsilon mAb, or stimulated with combined PMA and calcium ionophore. The inhibitory activity of bromelain was dependent on its proteolytic activity, as ERK-2 inhibition was abrogated by E-64, a selective cysteine protease inhibitor. However, inhibitory effects were not caused by nonspecific proteolysis, as the protease trypsin had no effect on ERK activation. Bromelain also inhibited PMA-induced IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-4 mRNA accumulation, but had no effect on TCR-induced cytokine mRNA production. This data suggests a critical requirement for ERK-2 in PMA-induced cytokine production, but not TCR-induced cytokine production. Bromelain did not act on ERK-2 directly, as it also inhibited p21ras activation, an effector molecule upstream from ERK-2 in the Raf-1/MEK/ERK-2 kinase signaling cascade. The results indicate that bromelain is a novel inhibitor of T cell signal transduction and suggests a novel role for extracellular proteases as inhibitors of intracellular signal transduction pathways. (+info)
Studies on the primary structure of the influenza virus hemagglutinin.
The amino-terminal sequence and composition of the subunits of the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus has been determined. The hemagglutinin has been isolated by two techniques. (1) as the intact hemagglutinin after disruption of the virus in sodium dodecyl sulfate, giving 2 subunits of 58,000 daltons (HA1) and 26,000 daltons (HA2), and (2) after treatment of the virus with bromelain, giving 2 subunits of 58,000 daltons (BHA1) and 21,000 daltons (BHA2). In both preparations these subunits are linked by disulfide bonds. The aminoterminal sequences of HA1 and BHA1, and HA2 and BHA2 are the same. The composition of the 50 residue peptide associated with the membrane, which is removed from the C-terminus of HA2 by bromelain, is deduced and shown to be hydrophobic and contain 50% of the serine residues of HA2. The biosynthetic precursor of the hemagglutinin has been purified from the membranes of abortively infected chick fibroblasts and shown to have the same amino terminus as HA1. Thus the order of biosynthesis is NH2-HA1-HA2-COOH. The amino-terminal sequence of BHA2--at the cleavage site of the precursor--is shown to be a palindrome: NH2-Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly-Ala-Ile-Ala-Gly-Phe-Ile-. This sequence is conserved in representative viruses from each of the major pandemics. A region of homologous sequence is described between the hemagglutinins of influenza type A and B viruses. (+info)
Membrane perturbation and fusion pore formation in influenza hemagglutinin-mediated membrane fusion. A new model for fusion.
Low pH-induced fusion mediated by the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus involves conformational changes in the protein that lead to the insertion of a "fusion peptide" domain of this protein into the target membrane and is thought to perturb the membrane, triggering fusion. By using whole virus, purified HA, or HA ectodomains, we found that shortly after insertion, pores of less than 26 A in diameter were formed in liposomal membranes. As measured by a novel assay, these pores stay open, or continue to close and open, for minutes to hours and persist after pH neutralization. With virus and purified HA, larger pores, allowing the leakage of dextrans, were seen at times well after insertion. For virus, dextran leakage was simultaneous with lipid mixing and the formation of "fusion pores," allowing the transfer of dextrans from the liposomal to the viral interior or vice versa. Pores did not form in the viral membrane in the absence of a target membrane. Based on these data, we propose a new model for fusion, in which HA initially forms a proteinaceous pore in the target, but not in the viral membrane, before a lipidic hemifusion intermediate is formed. (+info)
Growth potential of cottonseed culture media for various clinically significant aerobic bacteria.
Enzymatic hydrolysates of various cottonseed flours were prepared with the proteolytic enzymes bromelain, HT-200, Pronase, and trypsin. The growth of various aerobic bacteria of clinical significance in these hydrolysates was compared to that obtained with a standard casein-soybean peptone culture medium, Trypticase soy. The generation times of the majority of bacteria grown in the bromelain cottonseed flour hydrolysate were shorter than that obtained with the standard control broth. A bromelain cottonseed flour hydrolysate agar preparation supported the growth of the bacteria comparably to that of the casein-soybean agar substrate. All the bacterial colonies were larger on the bromelain cottonseed flour hydrolysate blood agar medium than those grown on the control agar. The peptones derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cottonseed flour are sufficient to promote the rapid and luxuriant growth of a wide spectrum of aerobic bacteria without the addition of peptone from other sources. It is suggested that cottonseed flour peptones be utilized as a nutrient source in general-purpose media for the clinical microbiology laboratory. (+info)
A hematopoietic cell L-selectin ligand that is distinct from PSGL-1 and displays N-glycan-dependent binding activity.
Human hematopoietic progenitor cells express L-selectin and also express PSGL-1, a ligand for all selectins. Using a shear-based adhesion assay, a hematopoietic cell L-selectin ligand (HCLL) that is expressed on the hematopoietic cell line KG1a and on normal human hematopoietic progenitors was previously identified. To characterize the structural biology of HCLL and to define its relationship to PSGL-1, the effects of chemical and enzymatic treatments on HCLL activity of KG1a cells and membrane preparations were analyzed. Protease digestions and chemical treatments of KG1a cells and membranes indicated that HCLL is an integral membrane glycoprotein. Glycosidase digestions of membrane protein preparations and metabolic treatments of KG1a cells with glycosylation processing modifiers revealed that L-selectin binding determinants on HCLL are sialofucosylated structures presented on complex-type N-glycans. Adhesion assays and biochemical studies showed that this glycoprotein is also expressed on circulating blasts in native acute leukemias. HCLL is distinguishable from PSGL-1: (1) KG1a cells sorted for PSGL-1 expression had equivalent HCLL activity; (2) anti-PSGL-1 blocking antibodies and proteases known to eliminate L-selectin binding to PSGL-1 had no effect on HCLL binding activity of KG1a cells; (3) blasts from native leukemias with low expression of PSGL-1 and CD34 display high HCLL activity; and (4) despite high level expression of PSGL-1, HCLL activity was absent on HL60 cells. These data provide first evidence of a naturally expressed membrane L-selectin ligand expressing binding determinant(s) on an N-linked glycoconjugate. This novel ligand may help mediate L-selectin-dependent cell-cell adhesive interactions within the cytoarchitecture of the bone marrow microenvironment. (Blood. 2000;96:2765-2774) (+info)
Primary structural analysis of sulfhydryl protease inhibitors from pineapple stem.
Pineapple stem acetone powder provides a rich source of the sulfhydryl protease bromelain and of a family of compositionally similar but chromatographically distinct polypeptide inihibtors of this enzyme. The isoinhibitors have molecular weights of 5600, and they contain five disulfide bonds and about 50 amino acids each (Perlstein, S. H., AND Kezdy, F.J. (1973) J. Supramol. Struct. 1, 249-254). Primary structural analysis of one of the seven inhibitor fractions (VII) revealed extensive microheterogeneity. Each of the inhibitor molecules in Fraction VII was shown to be composed of two peptide chains joined by disulfide bonds. These chains, designated A and B on the basis of size, comprise 41 and 10-11 residues, respectively, and the amino acid sequence of one of each are given below: (see article for formular). On the basis of ionization properties and yields of the A and B chains, it would appear that one of the major inhibitor species in Fraction VII is the covalently linked complex of the two chains shown, namely [A-1, B-2]. The second major inhibitor component of Fraction VII is identical in structure with [A-1, B-2i1 except that residues 1 and 8 in the A chain are pyroglutamate and threonine, respectively, and in the B chain glutamine 11 is replaced by arginine. The third inhibitor in Fraction VII is a minor constituent identical with the second, except that residue 1 in the A chain is glutamate rather than pyroglutamate. This microheterogeneity in the inhibitors of Fraction VII is further increased by the fact that B chains may lack threonine 1, in which case they are decapeptides beginning with alanine. On the basis of the striking homology of the cysteine residues with those of other protease inhibitors, it is proposed that the bromelain inhibitors are generated enzymatically from single chain precursors by excision of a "bridge" paptide which links the NH-2 termal A chain to the COOH-terminal B chain. (+info)