Factors associated with screening mammography and breast self-examination intentions.
The factors associated with the use of two methods for the early detection of breast cancer were assessed using a theoretical framework derived from the theory of reasoned action and the Health Belief Model. Telephone interviews were conducted with 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years, randomly selected from the telephone directory of a provincial city in Victoria, Australia. The model explained 47% of the variance in intentions to have a mammogram and 22% of the variance in intentions to practise breast self-examination (BSE). The data supported the prediction that different variables would be associated with each method of early detection of breast cancer. Intentions to have a mammogram were associated with perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, knowing a woman who has had a mammogram, previous mammography history and Pap test history. Intentions to do BSE were associated with self efficacy, knowledge of breast cancer issues, concern about getting breast cancer and employment status. Both screening methods were associated with prior behaviour and concern about getting breast cancer. (+info)
Detection of metachronous breast carcinoma: the role of follow-up?
Second primary (metachronous) breast carcinoma occurs at a rate of approximately 1% per year. Early detection of metachronous carcinomas will optimise the chances of curative treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the method of detection of metachronous carcinomas, so that efforts to detect these tumours can be made more focused. Thirteen patients presented twice to a surgical department in a 7-year period with second primary breast carcinomas. The means of detection of the second primary carcinoma was identified in each case. Eleven of the patients presented with new symptoms which they had noticed themselves. The remaining two carcinomas were detected mammographically, and their presence was confirmed on clinical examination. In no case was the second primary carcinoma detected by clinical examination alone. Metachronous carcinoma is unlikely to be detected by routine clinical examination, but rapid assessment of new symptoms should be facilitated. Follow-up mammography at regular intervals should also improve early detection of metachronous breast carcinoma. (+info)
Receptivity of a worksite breast cancer screening education program.
A breast cancer screening education program was offered to 97 major worksites in Forsyth County, North Carolina. Worksites could design a program by choosing components that consisted of (1) brochures, (2) breast cancer education classes taught by program staff or (3) sending company nurses to be trained by program staff to then teach employees at the worksite. A total of 63 out of the original 97 companies (65%) accepted and offered a program to their employees. Worksites that chose to sponsor a program were more likely to have already sponsored breast cancer education programs at their worksites (P = 0.027) or to have a medical department (P = 0.006). The type of component selected was significantly associated with a history of sponsoring other health education programs (P < 0.001). Fourteen worksites chose the more intensive component, the training of a company nurse. More than half of the worksites that had never sponsored and had no plans to sponsor worksite breast education programs were receptive to our program (43 of 73, 59%). The majority of these sites (67%) chose the brochure. These results indicate that worksites are receptive to offering breast cancer educational programs if varying types of components can be selected. (+info)
GPs' management of women seeking help for familial breast cancer.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to ascertain how often patients seek help for familial breast cancer in primary care, and to identify GPs management of these patients, in order to see whether guidelines are followed. METHODS: This was a descriptive study. GPs (n = 202) attending a postgraduate education programme were asked to fill in a questionnaire which included questions about the number of patients seeking help for familial breast cancer within the last 3 months and about their management strategies. RESULTS: About 80% of the GPs reported that they referred women with concerns about familial breast cancer for further diagnostics (mammography or ultrasound). For half these referrals a plan of regular appointments was set up, and one-eighth of the referrals included breast examination by a physician. Breast self-examination was advised in 50% of the cases. Estimates given to women regarding their breast cancer risk varied considerably. There was a strong relationship between risk estimates and management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Current guidelines regarding surveillance of women with breast cancer in the family were only partly followed. These guidelines do not give sufficient information to define whether there is an increased risk for breast cancer. These guidelines need to be refined. (+info)
Management of breast cancer after Hodgkin's disease.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence, detection, pathology, management, and prognosis of breast cancer occurring after Hodgkin's disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-one cases of breast cancer in 65 survivors of Hodgkin's disease were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 24.6 years for Hodgkin's disease and 42.6 years for breast cancer. The relative risk for invasive breast cancer after Hodgkin's disease was 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.4 to 6. 0) compared with an age-matched cohort. Cancers were detected by self-examination (63%), mammography (30%), and physician exam (7%). The histologic distribution paralleled that reported in the general population (85% ductal histology) as did other features (27% positive axillary lymph nodes, 63% positive estrogen receptors, and 25% family history). Although 87% of tumors were less than 4 cm, 95% were managed with mastectomy because of prior radiation. Two women underwent lumpectomy with breast irradiation. One of these patients developed tissue necrosis in the region of overlap with the prior mantle field. The incidence of bilateral breast cancer was 10%. Adjuvant systemic therapy was well tolerated; doxorubicin was used infrequently. Ten-year disease-specific survival was as follows: in-situ disease, 100%; stage I, 88%; stage II, 55%; stage III, 60%; and stage IV, zero. CONCLUSION: The risk of breast cancer is increased after Hodgkin's disease. Screening has been successful in detecting early-stage cancers. Pathologic features and prognosis are similar to that reported in the general population. Repeat irradiation of the breast can lead to tissue necrosis, and thus, mastectomy remains the standard of care in most cases. (+info)
Breast self examination for early detection of breast cancer.
Breast cancer is the commonest form of cancer in women in Western countries and second most common in women of developing countries like India. In the absence of an exact aetiological agent for breast cancer, the most appropriate way of controlling it is by early detection and treatment. Of the various methods of screening for breast cancer, mammography is the method of choice but its use is limited due to high cost and unavailability. Considering this, breast self examination (BSE) is an ideal method which can be done by every woman at her leisure time with little training. Medical and paramedical professionals can act as trend setters in promoting BSE for control of breast cancer in the community. (+info)
Practice of breast self-examination amongst women attending a Malaysian Well Person's Clinic.
The practice of breast self-examination (BSE) amongst 1,303 women registered with the Well Person's Clinic, Outpatient Department, Hospital Ipoh between April 1995 and March 1997 were assessed through a questionnaire. Majority (98.2%) were never taught and did not practise BSE, 17(1.3%) practised BSE while 6 (0.5%) were taught BSE but failed to put it into practice. Only 5.8% of 52 women with past/family history of breast cancer/lump and 2.9% of 207 women with past/family history of other cancers were practising BSE regularly. Three out of 64 women with breast lumps found on clinical breast examination discovered the lumps themselves. Five of the 64 women were subsequently confirmed to have breast carcinoma. (+info)
Effects of persuasive message order on coping with breast cancer information.
The current study explored the impact of varying the order of message components on coping with breast cancer information. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, threat information, coping information and order of information were manipulated. College students read persuasive essays that varied in emphasis on threat of developing breast cancer and effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE) in averting the threat of cancer. Participants who read the high-threat message reported higher intentions to perform BSE, more rational problem solving and more hopelessness than did those who read a low-threat message. The coping information messages produced a similar pattern of results. In addition, those who read the high-coping message reported less fatalism than did participants who read the low-coping message. When threat information was presented first, the high-threat message led to less hopelessness and reliance on religious faith than when the coping information was presented first. These results demonstrate the threatening health information energizes one to act in both adaptive and maladaptive ways, and that coping information decreases the tendency to respond maladaptively to the health threat. They also suggest that the order of presentation of the information may affect the extent to which people respond adaptively. (+info)