This activity is designed for primary care physicians. GOAL: To appreciate the significant advances and current techniques in breast reconstruction after mastectomy and realize the positive physical and emotional benefits to the patient. OBJECTIVES: 1. Understand basic and anatomic principles of breast reconstruction. 2. Discuss the options for breast reconstruction: a) immediate versus delayed; b) autologous tissue versus implant; and c) stages of reconstruction and ancillary procedures. 3. Provide a comprehensive overview of the risks and benefits of, as well as the alternatives to, each approach so primary care physicians can counsel patients effectively. (+info)
Silicone breast implants: epidemiological evidence of sequelae.
Skeptics may certainly find fault with the third study (the only one to report a significant finding) or with all or any of the statistics described. But few could argue, after examining these studies, that the relative risk for a known and well-defined connective tissue disease is likely greater than 2. Another possibility has been raised, one that calls to mind other difficult-to-study syndromes linked to exposures. In a study addressing Gulf War syndrome, signs and symptoms were often mentioned that proved difficult to describe systematically and therefore difficult to study. What if a suspected silicone exposure syndrome were so mild and transient that it did not warrant a physician visit (as in the Mayo Clinic study). receive a diagnosis (as in the Nurses' Health Study), or require admission to a hospital (as in the Danish and Swedish studies)? And if such a disorder were, in fact, mild and transient, should it merit the concern that has been shown and the compensation that has been awarded in the silicone implant litigation cases to date? We suggest that neither a well-described disorder with a relative risk of less than 2 nor a transient and mild disorder seems compatible with the number of litigants over silicone implants and the apparent seriousness of their complaints. Some 400,000 women joined in one class action suit for damages, and 170,000 joined in another. Even if there had been 2 million implants undertaken in the United States over the 3 decades in which implant surgery has been practiced (and some estimates put the number closer to 1 million), there is no conceivable way in which a relative risk of 2 or 3 (or even 4) for each of the rare syndromes reported could explain so many exposed women being affected. At most, 2200 out of 2 million unexposed women would be expected to have had any one of the listed forms of connective tissue disorders, most of which are very rare. Doubling the risk among the exposed population yields 4400, and increasing the risk 20-fold produces 44,000. At this rate, there is no way in which 400,000 litigants could all be affected. Extensions of the already-completed studies are ongoing, at least 1 of which is government funded; apparently it is thought in the United States (though not in the United Kingdom or elsewhere) that there is still room for reasonable doubt as to the supposed causal relationships. But if epidemiology is invoked in the interest of public health to prevent the many uses of silicone, the weight of the evidence abstracted here supports the inference that silicone breast implants have not been proved guilty of causing connective tissue disorders. (+info)
Letter re: "Cyclosiloxanes produce fatal liver and lung damage in mice".
Comments on Lieberman's article: Cyclosiloxanes Produce Fatal Liver and Lung Damage in Mice. Environ Health Perspect 107:161-165 (+info)
Extended field-of-view two-dimensional ultrasonography of the breast: improvement in lesion documentation.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of extended field-of-view two-dimensional ultrasonographic imaging for improvement in overall breast lesion documentation. Sonographic images of 59 patients with breast lesions or silicone implants were evaluated by three radiologists retrospectively to compare traditional static linear array images alone with images obtained with the addition of an extended field of view to determine if documentation of lesions was improved. The addition of extended field-of-view imaging improved lesion conspicuity by 21% over traditional images. It provided overall improvement in lesion documentation by including a reference point (nipple) or by more completely imaging large masses in 79% and implants in 69%. The larger field of view of this technique is promising as an adjunct to traditional sonography for breast lesion documentation. (+info)
Comparison of self-reported diagnosis of connective tissue disease with medical records in female health professionals: the Women's Health Cohort Study.
To compare self-report of connective tissue disease (CTD) with medical records, subjects were selected from 395,543 female health professionals with and without breast implants who reported CTD on mailed questionnaires from 1992 to 1995. The authors identified 220 women with breast implants (exposed) who self-reported CTD and a random sample of 879 women without breast implants (unexposed) who also self-reported CTD, matched by age and date of diagnosis. Medical records were reviewed using classification criteria from the American College of Rheumatology or other published criteria. After up to three requests and a telephone call, 27.7% of the women provided consent for medical record review. Exposed women appeared somewhat more likely (33.2% vs. 26.3%, p = 0.04) to provide consent. Using medical record reviews for 90% of the women who provided consent, confirmation rates of definite CTD were similar among the exposed and unexposed (22.7% vs. 24.0%, p = 0.83). This study demonstrates the difficulty of obtaining consent for medical record review of CTD reported to have occurred years ago in women with and without breast implants. Confirmation rates were low but were similar in exposed and unexposed. Despite the fact that the study had low participation rates, the data suggest that relative risk estimates for any definite CTD among women with breast implants compared with women without breast implants would be similar in analyses of self-reported or medical record-confirmed cases. (+info)
Meta-analyses of the relation between silicone breast implants and the risk of connective-tissue diseases.
BACKGROUND: The postulated relation between silicone breast implants and the risk of connective-tissue and autoimmune diseases has generated intense medical and legal interest during the past decade. The salience of the issue persists, despite the fact that a great deal of research has been conducted on this subject. To provide a stronger quantitative basis for addressing the postulated relation, we applied several techniques of meta-analysis that combine, compare, and summarize the results of existing relevant studies. METHODS: We searched data bases and reviewed citations in relevant articles to identify studies that met prestated inclusion criteria. Nine cohort studies, nine case-control studies, and two cross-sectional studies were included in our meta-analyses. We conducted meta-analyses of the results of these studies, both with and without adjustment for confounding factors, and a separate analysis restricted to studies of silicone-gel-filled breast implants. Finally, we estimated the annual number of new cases of connective-tissue disease that could be attributed to breast implants. RESULTS: There was no evidence that breast implants were associated with a significant increase in the summary adjusted relative risk of individual connective-tissue diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, 1.04 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.72 to 1.51]; systemic lupus erythematosus, 0.65 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.35 to 1.23]; scleroderma or systemic sclerosis, 1.01 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.73]; and Sjogren's syndrome, 1.42 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.65 to 3.11]); all definite connective-tissue diseases combined (0.80; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 1.04); or other autoimmune or rheumatic conditions (0.96; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.25). Nor was there evidence of significantly increased risk in the unadjusted analyses or in the analysis restricted to silicone-gel-filled implants. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our meta-analyses, there was no evidence of an association between breast implants in general, or silicone-gel-filled breast implants specifically, and any of the individual connective-tissue diseases, all definite connective-tissue diseases combined, or other autoimmune or rheumatic conditions. From a public health perspective, breast implants appear to have a minimal effect on the number of women in whom connective-tissue diseases develop, and the elimination of implants would not be likely to reduce the incidence of connective-tissue diseases. (+info)
Induction of hypergammaglobulinemia and macrophage activation by silicone gels and oils in female A.SW mice.
Although most published epidemiological studies have found little evidence of systemic autoimmune disease associated with silicone breast implants, there still remains a question of whether silicones can cause local and/or systemic immune dysfunction. This study further investigates the effects of silicones on autoantibody and immunoglobulin production and macrophage activation in female A.SW mice. Sixty mice were divided among four treatment groups receiving a 0.5-ml intraperitoneal injection of either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pristane, silicone gel, or silicone oil. Test bleeds were taken periodically for 6 months. In contrast to pristane, neither silicone gel nor silicone oil induced lupus-associated antinuclear autoantibodies (immunoglobulin G [IgG] anti-nRNP/Sm, Su, and ribosomal P) or lupus nephritis. However, serum IgM became elevated persistently within 1 month of silicone gel or silicone oil administration. Also, the level of IgG3 was clearly elevated in silicone oil-treated mice. In contrast, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b levels were not affected greatly by either silicone gel or oil. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from silicone- and pristane-treated mice produced higher levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-6 than those from PBS-treated mice after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. These results suggest that silicone gels and oils are capable of inducing hypergammaglobulinemia and activating macrophages in female A.SW mice. (+info)
Breast implants and illness: a model of psychological factors.
Studies of disease outcomes have not produced an explanation or an intervention for the symptoms and complaints that some women have attributed to breast implants. Reviews of the literature have found no increased risk of specific systemic disease, and no treatment recommendations have emerged. However, similar symptoms in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, and other contexts have been considered to be stress or behaviourally mediated, and a number of promising behavioural interventions have been developed. Aetiological, research, and treatment implications may follow from the consideration of such symptoms within a behavioural medicine model that allows for the interaction of physical and psychological influences. In the case of implants, a mass somatisation model may also help to discern the potential effects of litigation and other social influences. (+info)