Perception of sweetness in simple and complex taste stimuli by adults and children.
Currently, there is little information on the ability of children to analyse complex chemosensory stimuli in terms of the presence and magnitude of the components. The present study investigates this question by comparing the ability of 95 adults and 8- to 9-year-olds to estimate the sweetness of several concentrations of sucrose in water and in three foods, namely, orange drink, custard and shortbread biscuits, using a magnitude estimation procedure. The results indicated that similar response functions were produced by adults and children for the sweetness of aqueous solutions of sucrose, custard and biscuits, but not for orange juice, where the functions produced by both female and male children were significantly flatter than those of the adults. Stimulus context may have influenced the ratings of children in the no-sucrose and highest sucrose concentration conditions with two of the foods. The absence of differences between the response functions of the female and male children with all types of stimuli indicated that gender had no influence on their responses. It is concluded that, at mid-childhood, humans are capable of estimating the sweetness of sucrose in foods, but that they have a tendency to limit the range of numbers used in their estimates of sweetness at high concentrations of sucrose in some foods. (+info)
Inositol phosphates with different numbers of phosphate groups influence iron absorption in humans.
BACKGROUND: Inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) is a well-known inhibitor of iron absorption, whereas the effects of the less-phosphorylated derivatives of IP(6) are less known. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphates (IP(3), IP(4), and IP(5), respectively) on iron absorption in humans. DESIGN: Iron absorption was measured in 5 experiments from single meals by extrinsic labeling with (55)Fe and (59)Fe and determination of whole-body retention and the erythrocyte uptake of isotopes. In experiments 1-3 the meals contained white-wheat rolls to which 10 mg P as IP(5), IP(4), or IP(3), respectively, was added. Inositol 1,2,6-triphosphate [Ins(1,2, 6)P(3)] and a mixture of isomers of IP(4) and IP(5) were studied. White-wheat rolls contained 10 mg P as IP(3) + IP(4) and 2 mg P as IP(5) + IP(6) in experiment 4 and 20 mg P as IP(3) + IP(4) and 3 mg P as IP(5) + IP(6) in experiment 5; inositol phosphates were obtained via fermentation of sodium phytate. Each experiment had 8-11 subjects. RESULTS: In experiment 1, iron absorption was reduced by 39%, whereas there was no significant effect on iron absorption in experiments 2 and 3. In experiments 4 and 5, iron absorption was reduced by 54% and 64%, respectively, suggesting that IP(3) and IP(4) contributed to the inhibitory effect. CONCLUSIONS: IP(5) has an inhibitory effect on iron absorption, whereas IP(3) and IP(4) in isolated form have no such effect. IP(3) and IP(4) in processed food contribute to the negative effect on iron absorption, presumably by binding iron between different inositol phosphates. To improve iron absorption from cereals and legumes, degradation of inositol phosphates needs to be to less-phosphorylated inositol phosphates than IP(3). (+info)
Lactobacillus paralimentarius sp. nov., isolated from sourdough.
Six strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sourdough were characterized taxonomically. They were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. Morphological and physiological data indicated that the strains belong to the genus Lactobacillus and they were similar to Lactobacillus alimentarius in phenotypic characteristics. These strains shared the same phenotypic characteristics and exhibited intragroup DNA homology values of over 89.8%, indicating that they comprised a single species. The G + C content of the DNA for the strains was 37.2-38.0 mol%. The 16S rRNA sequence of representative strain TB 1T was determined and aligned with that of other Lactobacillus species. This strain was placed in the genus Lactobacillus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. L. alimentarius was the most closely related species in the phylogenetic tree and this species also showed the highest sequence homology value (96%) with strain TB 1T. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strain TB 1T did not belong to L. alimentarius. It is proposed that these strains are placed in the genus Lactobacillus as a new species, Lactobacillus paralimentarius sp. nov. The type strain of L. paralimentarius is TB 1T, which has been deposited in the Japan Collection of Microorganisms (JCM) as strain JCM 10415T. (+info)
Respiratory diseases among agricultural industry workers in India: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.
Epidemiological survey for respiratory diseases among agricultural industry workers, such as bakeries, poultry farms, granaries and a sugar refinery was carried out using a medical questionnaire on various respiratory symptoms such as cough, breathlessness, rhinitis. The questionnaire was filled up by two doctoral students during personal visits to these work environments. The survey revealed that 40-59% of workers in different occupational work environments suffered from one or more respiratory ailments. As much as 36-40% of the workers reported work-related symptoms which is close to similar data from Western countries. A higher incidence of respiratory disorders was recorded in workers with longer duration of employment. Older workers suffered more than the young ones. Family history of atopy was found to have least effect on the incidence of cough, breathlessness and rhinitis in the workers. Smoking was found to have definite impact on the incidence of cough and breathlessness (+info)
Rye bread decreases serum total and LDL cholesterol in men with moderately elevated serum cholesterol.
The objective of this study was to determine the hypocholesterolemic effects of whole meal rye and white wheat breads in healthy humans with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations, and the changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during rye and wheat bread periods. The subjects were 18 men and 22 women with baseline serum cholesterol concentration of 6.4+/-0.2 mmol/L. The study design was a 2x4-wk crossover trial during which each subject randomly consumed rye and wheat breads (20% of daily energy) as part of their usual diet for 4 wk. The bread periods were separated by a 4-wk washout period. Blood samples (after fasting) were collected on two consecutive days at the beginning and end of the bread periods. Serum total cholesterol decreased by 8% (P = 0.002) in men but was not significantly altered in women during the rye bread period. The wheat bread period did not affect any of the variables studied. Analysis of the serum lipids in tertiles of rye bread consumption confirmed the reduction in total cholesterol (P = 0.048) in men and revealed the reduction in LDL cholesterol (P = 0.032); both were dependent on the amount of rye bread consumed (-2, -14 and -10% in total cholesterol and 0, -12 and -12% in LDL cholesterol). Neither rye nor wheat bread influenced the concentrations of glucose and insulin. In conclusion, rye bread is effective in reducing serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in men with elevated serum cholesterol. Good compliance with consuming a relatively large amount of rye bread in the usual diet indicates that rye bread offers a practical dietary means of reducing serum cholesterol in men. (+info)
Performance and meat quality of beef steers fed corn-based or bread by-product-based diets.
A feeding trial was conducted with beef breed steers (120) to determine the effects of substituting bread by-product (BBy) for whole shelled corn on performance and meat quality. Chemical analysis of each diet ingredient and in vitro rates of digestion from gas production of BBy and corn were determined to provide accurate information for diet evaluations using the 1996 Beef NRC Model Level 2. Bread by-product contained 16% CP (75.6% degradable) and 75.1% non-structural carbohydrates (70% as starch, which had a digestion rate of 16%/h). The steers were given one estrogenic implant (Synovex-S) and started on the experiment at 15 mo of age and an average weight of 364 kg. The cattle were commercially slaughtered in three groups (40 steers at 101, 60 steers at 126, and 20 steers at 160 d on feed) weighing an average of 553 kg when they reached a small degree of marbling. Carcasses were electrically stimulated to prevent cold shortening of muscles. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were measured in rib steaks at 5, 14, and 21 d after slaughter (n = 76). Rib steaks from 30 steers per treatment were evaluated for palatability traits. Use of BBy at 55% of the diet (substituted for 75% of the corn) significantly improved feed efficiency by 8.1%. There were no statistically significant differences between the two diets for effects on ADG, carcass characteristics, shear force values, or sensory panel ratings of tenderness, juiciness, flavor, or overall acceptability. After adjusting intestinal starch digestibility in Level 2 to 63% for the whole corn and 90% for the BBy, predicted ADG matched that observed. Apparent NE(g) values for BBy and corn were 1.57 and 1.41 Mcal/kg, respectively. (+info)
Evolution and variation of the yeast (Saccharomyces) genome.
In this review we describe the role of the yeast Saccharomyces in the development of human societies including the use of this organism in the making of wine, bread, beer, and distilled beverages. We also discuss the tremendous diversity of yeast found in natural (i.e., noninoculated) wine fermentations and the scientific uses of yeast over the past 60 years. In conclusion, we present ideas on the model of "genome renewal" and the use of this model to explain the mode by which yeast has evolved and how diversity can be generated. (+info)
Multiplex PCR for the detection of Lactobacillus pontis and two related species in a sourdough fermentation.
A specific multiplex PCR assay based on the amplification of parts of the 16S rRNA molecule was designed. Primers derived from variable regions of the 16S rRNA provided a means of easily differentiating the species Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus panis. They could be clearly discriminated from the phylogenetically related species Lactobacillus vaginalis, Lactobacillus oris, and Lactobacillus reuteri and from other lactobacilli commonly known to be present in sourdough. Other strains isolated together with L. pontis from an industrial sourdough fermentation could be clearly separated from these species by comparative sequence analysis and construction of a specific PCR primer. For a fast identification a DNA isolation protocol based on the ultrasonic lysis of cells from single colonies was developed. To demonstrate the potential of such techniques for tracking these organisms in a laboratory-scale fermentation, we combined the specific PCR assay with direct DNA extraction from the organisms in the sourdough without previous cultivation. (+info)