The CLAVATA1 receptor-like kinase requires CLAVATA3 for its assembly into a signaling complex that includes KAPP and a Rho-related protein.
The CLAVATA1 (CLV1) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) genes are required to maintain the balance between cell proliferation and organ formation at the Arabidopsis shoot and flower meristems. CLV1 encodes a receptor-like protein kinase. We have found that CLV1 is present in two protein complexes in vivo. One is approximately 185 kD, and the other is approximately 450 kD. In each complex, CLV1 is part of a disulfide-linked multimer of approximately 185 kD. The 450-kD complex contains the protein phosphatase KAPP, which is a negative regulator of CLV1 signaling, and a Rho GTPase-related protein. In clv1 and clv3 mutants, CLV1 is found primarily in the 185-kD complex. We propose that CLV1 is present as an inactive disulfide-linked heterodimer and that CLV3 functions to promote the assembly of the active 450-kD complex, which then relays signal transduction through a Rho GTPase. (+info)
Q-Band resonance Raman investigation of turnip cytochrome f and Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c1.
The results of a comprehensive Q-band resonance Raman investigation of cytochrome c1 and cytochrome f subunits of bc1 and b6f complexes are presented. Q-band excitation provides a particularly effective probe of the local heme environments of these species. The effects of protein conformation (particularly axial ligation) on heme structure and function were further investigated by comparison of spectra obtained from native subunits to those of a site directed c1 mutant (M183L) and various pH-dependent species of horse heart cytochrome c. In general, all species examined displayed variability in their axial amino acid ligation that suggests a good deal of flexibility in their hemepocket conformations. Surprisingly, the large scale protein rearrangements that accompany axial ligand replacement have little or no effect on macrocycle geometry in these species. This indicates the identity and/or conformation of the peptide linkage between the two cysteines that are covalently linked to the heme periphery may determine heme geometry. (+info)
Molecular cloning and functional expression of a phospholipase D from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata).
We cloned and expressed a full-length cDNA encoding a phospholipase D of type alpha (PLDalpha) from cabbage. Analysis of the cDNA predicted an 812-amino-acid protein of 92.0 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of cabbage PLD has 83% and 80% identity with Arabidopsis PLDalpha and castor bean PLD, respectively. Expression of this cDNA clone in E. coli shows a functional PLD activity similar to that of the natural PLD. (+info)
Characterization of low-molecular-mass trypsin isoinhibitors from oil-rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) seed.
A new low-molecular-mass (6767.8 Da) serine proteinase isoinhibitor has been isolated from oil-rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) seed, designated 5-oxoPro1-Gly62-RTI-III. The 5-oxoPro1-Gly62-RTI-III isoinhibitor is longer than the Asp2-Pro61-RTI-III and the Ser3-Pro61-RTI-III forms, all the other amino acid residues being identical. In RTI-III isoinhibitors, the P1-P1' reactive site bond (where residues forming the reactive site have been identified as PnellipsisP1 and P1'ellipsisPn', where P1-P1' is the inhibitor scissile bond) has been identified at position Arg21-Ile22. The inhibitor disulphide bridges pattern has been determined as Cys5-Cys27, Cys18-Cys31, Cys42-Cys52 and Cys54-Cys57. The disulphide bridge arrangement observed in the RTI-III isoinhibitors is reminiscent of that found in a number of toxins (e.g. erabutoxin b). Moreover, the organization of the three disulphide bridges subset Cys5-Cys27, Cys18-Cys31 and Cys42-Cys52 is reminiscent of that found in epidermal growth factor domains. Preliminary 1H-NMR data indicates the presence of alphaalphaNOEs and 3JalphaNH coupling constants, typical of the beta-structure(s). These data suggest that the three-dimensional structure of the RTI-III isoinhibitors may be reminiscent of that of toxins and epidermal growth factor domains, consisting of three-finger shaped loops extending from the crossover region. Values of the apparent association equilibrium constant for RTI-III isoinhibitors binding to bovine beta-trypsin and bovine alpha-chymotrypsin are 3.3 x 109 m-1 and 2.4 x 106 m-1, respectively, at pH 8.0 and 21.0 degrees C. The serine proteinase : inhibitor complex formation is a pH-dependent entropy-driven process. RTI-III isoinhibitors do not show any similarity to other serine proteinase inhibitors except the low molecular mass white mustard trypsin isoinhibitor, isolated from Sinapis alba L. seed (MTI-2). Therefore, RTI-III and MTI-2 isoinhibitors could be members of a new class of plant serine proteinase inhibitors. (+info)
The retention and distribution by healthy young men of stable isotopes of selenium consumed as selenite, selenate or hydroponically-grown broccoli are dependent on the isotopic form.
Twenty-seven healthy young men were randomly assigned to diets that supplied low (32.6 microg/d) or high (226.5 microg/d) levels of selenium for a 105-d study. After consuming the diets for 85 d, subjects were fed a test meal that contained 74Se in the form of selenite or selenate and 82Se incorporated into hydroponically-raised broccoli. Urine, fecal and blood samples were collected daily. Isotope absorption was not different (P > 0.05) for selenate and Se in broccoli; Se absorption from selenite was highly variable and was not included in statistical analyses. Significantly more isotope was absorbed by subjects fed the high Se diet (P = 0. 015). Urinary isotope excretion was greater when selenate was fed than when broccoli was fed (P = 0.0001), and consequently more Se from broccoli (as compared to selenate) was retained (59.2 +/- 2.4 and 36.4 +/- 4.6% for Se in broccoli and selenate, respectively; P = 0.0001). Despite the higher retention, less isotope from broccoli than from selenate was present in the plasma. Plasma proteins separated by gel permeation chromatography showed that most of the isotopes were distributed between two medium molecular weight peaks. Less isotope was found in plasma proteins of subjects fed the high Se diet, but the form of Se had no effect on isotope distribution. These results show that dietary Se intake alters the retention of stable isotopes of Se and that humans retain and distribute Se from broccoli in a different manner than Se from inorganic salts. (+info)
Polyisoprenyl phosphate (PIPP) signaling regulates phospholipase D activity: a 'stop' signaling switch for aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4.
It is of wide interest to understand how opposing extracellular signals (positive or negative) are translated into intracellular signaling events. Receptor-ligand interactions initiate the generation of bioactive lipids by human neutrophils (PMN), which serve as signals to orchestrate cellular responses important in host defense and inflammation. We recently identified a novel polyisoprenyl phosphate (PIPP) signaling pathway and found that one of its components, presqualene diphosphate (PSDP), is a potent negative intracellular signal in PMN that regulates superoxide anion generation by several stimuli, including phosphatidic acid. We determined intracellular PIPP signaling by autocoids with opposing actions on PMN: leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant, and lipoxin A4 (LXA4), a 'stop signal' for recruitment. LTB4 receptor activation initiated a rapid decrease in PSDP levels concurrent with activation of PLD and cellular responses. In sharp contrast, activation of the LXA4 receptor reversed LTB4-initiated PSDP remodeling, leading to an accumulation of PSDP and potent inhibition of both PLD and superoxide anion generation. Thus, an inverse relationship was established for PSDP levels and PLD activity with two PMN ligands that evoke opposing responses. In addition, PSDP directly inhibited both isolated human recombinant (Ki = 6 nM) and plant (Ki = 20 nM) PLD. Together, these findings link PIPP remodeling to intracellular regulation of PMN function and suggest a role for PIPPs as lipid repressors in signal transduction, a novel mechanism that may also explain aspirin's suppressive actions in vivo in cell signaling. (+info)
Recombination and selection at Brassica self-incompatibility loci.
In Brassica species, self-incompatibility is controlled genetically by haplotypes involving two known genes, SLG and SRK, and possibly an as yet unknown gene controlling pollen incompatibility types. Alleles at the incompatibility loci are maintained by frequency-dependent selection, and diversity at SLG and SRK appears to be very ancient, with high diversity at silent and replacement sites, particularly in certain "hypervariable" portions of the genes. It is important to test whether recombination occurs in these genes before inferences about function of different parts of the genes can be made from patterns of diversity within their sequences. In addition, it has been suggested that, to maintain the relationship between alleles within a given S-haplotype, recombination is suppressed in the S-locus region. The high diversity makes many population genetic measures of recombination inapplicable. We have analyzed linkage disequilibrium within the SLG gene of two Brassica species, using published coding sequences. The results suggest that intragenic recombination has occurred in the evolutionary history of these alleles. This is supported by patterns of synonymous nucleotide diversity within both the SLG and SRK genes, and between domains of the SRK gene. Finally, clusters of linkage disequilibrium within the SLG gene suggest that hypervariable regions are under balancing selection, and are not merely regions of relaxed selective constraint. (+info)
RNA polymerase I transcription in a Brassica interspecific hybrid and its progenitors: Tests of transcription factor involvement in nucleolar dominance.
In interspecific hybrids or allopolyploids, often one parental set of ribosomal RNA genes is transcribed and the other is silent, an epigenetic phenomenon known as nucleolar dominance. Silencing is enforced by cytosine methylation and histone deacetylation, but the initial discrimination mechanism is unknown. One hypothesis is that a species-specific transcription factor is inactivated, thereby silencing one set of rRNA genes. Another is that dominant rRNA genes have higher binding affinities for limiting transcription factors. A third suggests that selective methylation of underdominant rRNA genes blocks transcription factor binding. We tested these hypotheses using Brassica napus (canola), an allotetraploid derived from B. rapa and B. oleracea in which only B. rapa rRNA genes are transcribed. B. oleracea and B. rapa rRNA genes were active when transfected into protoplasts of the other species, which argues against the species-specific transcription factor model. B. oleracea and B. rapa rRNA genes also competed equally for the pol I transcription machinery in vitro and in vivo. Cytosine methylation had no effect on rRNA gene transcription in vitro, which suggests that transcription factor binding was unimpaired. These data are inconsistent with the prevailing models and point to discrimination mechanisms that are likely to act at a chromosomal level. (+info)