Proton MR spectroscopy of Sjogren-Larsson's syndrome.
We performed single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in two children with Sjogren-Larsson's syndrome (SLS). Both patients showed two abnormal spectral peaks at 1.3 ppm and 0.9 ppm that were obtained with short echo times. These two abnormal spectral peaks were seen in high-intensity areas on T2-weighted images and also in basal ganglia of normal intensities. 1H-MRS may be useful for establishing the diagnosis and investigating the natural history of SLS, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic approaches to SLS. (+info)
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are metabolic deficiencies in glycoprotein biosynthesis that usually cause severe mental and psychomotor retardation. Different forms of CDGs can be recognized by altered isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns of serum transferrin (Tf). Two patients with these symptoms and similar abnormal Tf IEF patterns were analyzed by metabolic labeling of fibroblasts with inverted question mark2-(3)Hmannose. The patients produced a truncated dolichol-linked precursor oligosaccharide with 5 mannose residues, instead of the normal precursor with 9 mannose residues. Addition of 250 microM mannose to the culture medium corrected the size of the truncated oligosaccharide. Microsomes from fibroblasts of these patients were approximately 95% deficient in dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man) synthase activity, with an apparent K(m) for GDP-Man approximately 6-fold higher than normal. DPM1, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit of Dol-P-Man synthase, was altered in both patients. One patient had a point mutation, C(274)G, causing an R(92)G change in the coding sequence. The other patient also had the C(274)G mutation and a 13-bp deletion that presumably resulted in an unstable transcript. Defects in DPM1 define a new glycosylation disorder, CDG-Ie. (+info)
Extensive intracranial xanthoma associated with type II hyperlipidemia.
Xanthomas are associated with a spectrum of medical conditions, most commonly disorders of lipid storage and lipid metabolism. They occur primarily in the subcutaneous tissues, especially along the Achilles tendon and the extensor tendons of the hands. Intracranial xanthomas are extremely rare. We present a case of an extensive xanthoma of the temporal bone in a patient with hyperlipidemia. (+info)
Mutation analysis in glutaric aciduria type I.
Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1), resulting from the genetic deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GDH), is a relatively common cause of acute metabolic brain damage in infants. Encephalopathic crises may be prevented by carnitine supplementation and diet, but diagnosis can be difficult as some patients do not show the typical excretion of large amounts of glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids in the urine. We present a rapid and efficient denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method for the identification of mutations in the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) gene that may be used for the molecular diagnosis of GA1 in a routine setting. Using this technique, we identified mutations on both alleles in 48 patients with confirmed GDH deficiency, while no mutations were detected in other patients with clinical suspicion of GA1 but normal enzyme studies. There was a total of 38 different mutations; 27 mutations were found in single patients only, and 21 mutations have not been previously reported. Fourteen mutations involved hypermutable CpG sites. The commonest GA1 mutation in Europeans is R402W, which accounts for almost 40% of alleles in patients of German origin. GCDH gene haplotypes were determined through the analysis of polymorphic markers in all families, and three CpG mutations were associated with different haplotypes, possibly reflecting independent recurrence. The high sensitivity of the DGGE method allows the rapid and cost efficient diagnosis of GA1 in instances where enzyme analyses are not available or feasible, despite the marked heterogeneity of the disease. (+info)
Abnormal vertical optokinetic nystagmus in infants and children.
AIMS: To determine if testing vertical optokinetic nystagmus (VOKN) has a role in the clinical assessment of infants and children. METHODS: A large field projection system was developed with which optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) could be stimulated in any direction. Gross abnormalities in the response were detected simply by observation. RESULTS: VOKN was tested in 144 children using this OKN projection system. 26 of these children had abnormal VOKN; 13 had a vertical saccade initiation failure "ocular motor apraxia" (in either direction, up/down, or in both) and 13 had absent VOKN (in either direction, up/down, or in both). Nine of the children with an up and/or down vertical saccade initiation failure (VSIF) had a neurometabolic disease (two had Niemann-Pick disease type C, five had Gaucher disease type III, one had Gaucher disease type II, and one had Gaucher disease type I). Five children with a VSIF had an abnormality identified by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain. In two of these children there was a focal lesion of the rostral midbrain. In 11 of the children with absent up and/or down VOKN an MRI scan revealed an abnormality. This involved the brainstem and/or the cerebellum in 10. Absent up and/or down VOKN was found in association with Joubert syndrome, Leigh disease, and cerebral palsy. CONCLUSION: VOKN testing has a useful role in detecting neurological abnormalities in infants and children. Detection of abnormal VOKN should indicate further investigations for a neurometabolic disease or an abnormality involving the cortex, brainstem, and/or cerebellum. Abnormal VOKN but normal horizontal OKN is highly suggestive of a rostral midbrain lesion. (+info)
Cytochrome c oxidase-deficient patients have distinct subunit assembly profiles.
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is the most common respiratory chain defect in childhood and is clinically heterogeneous. We report a study of six patients with COX deficiencies. Two of the patients had as yet undefined defects, three patients had Surf-1 mutations, and one patient had a 15-base pair deletion in the COX III subunit. We show that quantitative measurements of steady-state levels of subunits by monoclonal antibody reactivity, when used in combination with a discontinuous sucrose gradient methods, provide an improved diagnosis of COX deficiencies by distinguishing between kinetic, stability, and assembly defects. The two mutants of undefined etiology had a full complement of subunits with one stable and the other partially unstable to detergent solubilization. Both are likely to carry mutations in nuclear-encoded subunits of the complex. The three Surf-1 mutants and the COX III mutant each had reduced steady-state levels of subunits but variable associations of the residual subunits. This information, as well as aiding in diagnosis, helps in understanding the genotype-phenotype relationships of COX deficiencies and provides insight into the mechanism of assembly of the enzyme complex. (+info)
MR brain imaging of fucosidosis type I.
SUMMARY: Fucosidosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease with the main clinical findings of progressive neuromotor deterioration, seizures, coarse facial features, dysostosis multiplex, angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, visceromegaly, recurrent respiratory infections, and growth retardation. Fucosidosis type I rapidly evolves toward a progressive neurologic deterioration and death. We report MR imaging findings of the brain of three patients with fucosidosis type I, including previously unreported findings, to expand the knowledge of the neuroradiologic spectrum of the disease. (+info)
A new neurological entity manifesting as involuntary movements and dysarthria with possible abnormal copper metabolism.
A few patients with an affected CNS involving abnormalities in copper metabolism have been described that do not fit any known nosological entities such as Wilson's disease or Menkes' disease. Three sporadic patients (two men and one woman) were examined with involuntary movements and dysarthria associated with abnormal concentrations of serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin, and urinary copper excretion. The onset of neurological symptoms occurred at the age of 15 to 17 years. The common clinical symptoms were involuntary movements and dysarthria. The involuntary movements included dystonia in the neck, myoclonus in the shoulder, athetosis in the neck, and rapid orobuccal movements. The dysarthria consisted of unclear, slow, and stuttering speech. Two of the three patients did not have dementia. A cousin of the female patient had been diagnosed as having Wilson's disease and had died of liver cirrhosis. Laboratory findings showed a mild reduction in serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations, whereas urinary copper excretion was significantly reduced in all three patients. Two of the three patients showed a high signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T2 weighted brain MRI. In conclusion, the unique findings of involuntary movements, dysarthria, and abnormal serum copper and urinary copper concentrations suggest that the three patients may constitute a new clinical entity that is distinct from either Wilson's or Menkes disease. (+info)